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Exam II

Chp 7-9

VocabDefinitions
Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
biological rhythms periodic physiological fluctuations
Circadian rhythm biological clock;regular bodily rhythms that occur in 24hr cycles (EX temperature and wakefulness
REM Sleep rapid eye movement sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active.
Alpha waves rlatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Sleep periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- not a coma, hibernation, or being under general anesthesia
Hallucinations false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Delta waves large, slow brain waves associted with deep sleep
Insomnia recurring problems with falling or staying asleep
Narcolepsy sleep disorder where uncontrollable sleep attacks. The person might fall directly into REM sleep. This often happens at inoportune times
Sleep apnea sleep disorder with temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings
Night terrors sleep disorder with high arousal and appearance of being terrified. Occur during stage 4 of sleep about 2 or 3 hours after falling asleep. usually not remembered
Dream a sequence of images emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. filled with hallucinations, imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities. Hard to remember at times
Manifest content remembered story line of dream, lacking the details
Latent content underlying meaning of a dream, functions as a safety net.
Hypnosis a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
Posthypnotic amnesia supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by hypnotist's suggestion
Posthypnotic suggestion suggestion made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
dissociation a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
Hidden observer Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experience, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
REM rebound Tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep
Psychoactive drug is a chemical substance that alters perception, mood, consciousness and behavior
Tolerance the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
Withdrawal the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
Physical dependence a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms whe the drug is discontinued.
Psychological dependence a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
Depressants Drugs (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Stimulants drugs (caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines) that excite the neural activity and speed up body functions.
Hallucinogens psychedelic drugs, such as lsd that distort perceprions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
Barbiturates drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
Opiates Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin, they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
Amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
Ecstasy (MDMA) a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
LSD a powerful jallucinogenic drug alson known as acid
THC the major active ingredient in marijuana, triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
Near-death experience an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death. often similar to drug induced hallucinations.
Alcohol Depressant-- gives initial high followed by relaxation and disinhibition-- EFFECTS depression, momory loss, organ damage, impaired reactions
Heroin Depressant used for rush of euphoria, relief from pain and anxiety. EFFECTS- depressed physiology, agonizing withdrawal
Caffeine Stimulant that gives increased alertness and wakefulness. EFFECTS- anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia, uncomfortable withdrawal
Methamphetamine Stimulant that fives euphoria, alertness, energy. EFFECTS- irritability, insomnia, hypertension, seizures
Cocaine Stimulant that gives rush of euphoria, confidence, energy. EFFECTS- Cardiovascular stress, suspiciousness, depressive crash
Nicotine Stimulant that gives arousan and relaxation, sense of well-being. Effects- Heart disease, cancer
Learning a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
associative learning learning that certain events occur together whether through classical or operant conditioning
Classical conditioning learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
Behaviorism all things including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors disregarding physiology or mental state. all theories should be observational.
Unconditioned stimulus ) stimulus that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned response the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth. In our example, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response.
Conditioned stimulus originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the f
Conditioned response ) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus. In our example, the conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.
Acquisition Initial stage, if you are trying to teach a dog to shake in response to a verbal command, you can say the response has been acquired as soon as the dog shakes in response to only the verbal command.
Extinction the diminishing of a conditioned response. if the unconditioned stimulus (the smell of food) were no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus (the whistle), eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear.
Spontaneous recovery the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response.
Stimulus Generalization conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned. For example, if a rat has been conditioned to fear a stuffed white rabbit, it will exhibit fear of objects similar to the conditioned stimulus.
Discrimination differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus. differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Operant conditioning of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. , a child may be told they will lose recess privileges if they talk out of turn in class.
Operant behavior behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Law of Effect Suggests those responses that are closely followed by satisfaction will become more likely, & unfavorable become less likely
Operant chamber (Skinner Box) chamber that contains a bar or key that an animal can press or manipulate in order to obtain food or water as a type of reinforcement.
Shaping (OC) procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal
Reinforcer any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers:
Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus, like one that satisfies a biological neeed
Conditioned Reinforcer stimulus that gain reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer (aka secondary reinforcer)
Continuous Reinforcement desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. Generally, this schedule is best used during the initial stages of learning in order to create a strong association between the behavior and the response
Partial Reinforcement the response is reinforced only part of the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more slowly with partial reinforcement, but the response is more resistant to extinction.
Fixed-ratio schedules where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. This schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with only a brief pause after the delivery of the reinforcer.
Variable-ratio schedules when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule
Fixed-interval schedule (OC) schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Variable-interval schedule (OC) schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
Punishment event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
Cognitive map Mental representation of the layout of on's environment.
Latent learning learning not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
Overjustification effect effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. reward not interest becomes motivation for performing task.
Intrinsic motivation desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
Extrinsic motivation desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Modeling process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. (mirroring actions of another)
Prosocial behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior. opposite of antisocial
Memory persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of info
Flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Encoding Processing of info into the memory system. EX extracting meaning
Storage retention of encoded info over time.
retrieval getting info out of memory storage
Sensory memory Immediate, initial recording of sensory info in the memory system
Short-term memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly, like a phone number while dialing, before the info is forgotten or stored
Long-term memory relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
Automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental info, like space, time, and frequency, and of wll-learned info like, word meanings
Effortful processing encoding that requires attention an conscious effort
Rehearsal conscious repetition of info, in order to maintaine or encode for storage
Spacing effect tendency for distributed study to yield better long-term retention than is achieved tghrough massed study
Serial position effect tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Visual encoding encoding of picture images
Acoustic encoding encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Semantic encoding encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
Imagery Mental pictures that help effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
Mnemonics Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivd imagery and organizational devices
Chuncking organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically
Iconic memory momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic memory momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Long-term potentiation (LTP) an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
Amnesia loss of memory
Implicit memory retention independent of conscious recollection. Also called procedural memory
Explicit memory Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Hippocampus Neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
Recall measure of memory in which athe person must retrieve info learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test
Recognition measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test.
Relearning memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Priming activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Deja Vu eerie sense that "i've experienced this before." cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
Mood-congruent memory tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Proactive interference disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info
Retroactive interference disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info
Repression basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Misinformation effect Incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event
Source amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Reason for false memories.
Improving memory study repeatedly, actively think about the material, make material personally meanigful, refresh memory, recall events, test your knowledge, minimize interference
Created by: ms.mhill