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PS 334 Chp. 10

QuestionAnswer
A teacher centered approach characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic skills, high expectations for students, and maximum time spent on learning tasks. Direct Instruction Approach
A learner centered approach that emphasizes the adolescent's active, cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher. Constructivist Approach
The U.S. government's effort to hold schools and school districts accountable for the success or failure of their students. No Child Left Behind
When was No Child Left Behind signed into law? 2002
Is No Child Left Behind more closely aligned with the direct instruction approach or the constructivist approach? Direct Instruction Approach
The circumstance of moving from the top position (in elementary school, the oldest, biggest, and most powerful students) to the lowest position (in junior high school, the youngest, smallest, and least powerful). Top-dog Phenomenon
What factors improve student adjustment during the transition from elementary to middle or junior high school? When students have positive relationships with friends and go through the transition with team-oriented schools.
What were the recommendations of the 1989 Carnegie report, Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the Twenty-First Century? Develop smaller "communities", lower student-to-counselor ratios, involve parents and community leaders, have teachers team teach, and boost students health/fitness.
The National Research Council (2004) concluded that the best way to get students more engaged in learning is to focus on the psychological factors involved in __________________. Motivation
Compare the U.S. high school dropout rate in the 1940s with that of 2006. The rate has decreased to 9.3 %.
The highest dropout rate in the United States occurs for _________________________ youth—less than _______% finish their high school education. Native American youth; 50 %
Are males or females more likely to drop out of school? Males
In a review of school-based dropout programs, Lehr and others (2006) found that the most effective programs provided what? Early reading programs, tutoring, counseling, and mentoring.
An innovative comprehensive, long-term dropout prevention program. I Have a Dream Program
How do reports of stress and depression from today’s college freshmen differ from those of the past? More stress than in the past.
Are boys or girls more stressed in entering college? Girls
What strategies for creating a positive classroom environment seem to be most effective? Using an authoritative strategy and effectively managing the group's activities.
A teaching strategy that encourages students to be independent thinkers and doers but still involves effective monitoring. Authoritative
A teaching strategy that is restrictive and punitive. The focus is mainly on keeping order in the classroom rather than on instruction and learning. Authoritarian
A teaching strategy that offers students considerable autonomy but provides them with little support for developing learning skills or managing their behavior. Permissive
What teacher traits are more often associated with positive student outcomes? Enthusiasm, ability to plan, poise, adaptability, warmth, flexibility, and awareness of individual differences.
What family management practices are positively related to student grades and self-responsibility and negatively related to school-related problems? Maintaining a structured and organized family environment.
Does bullying tend to increase or decrease from sixth through eighth grade? Decrease
What are some characteristics of bullies? Low grades, smoker, drinker.
What are some characteristics of the victims of bullies? Younger boys and middle school students, those who have difficulty making friends, loneliness, anxious, socially withdrawn, and aggressive children.
What are some of the strategies schools can adopt to reduce bullying? Have monitors, develop school-wide rules, get parents involved.
Does involvement in extracurricular activities generally help or hurt academic performance? It helps!
Is it more beneficial for students to focus on only one extracurricular activity? No
Are beneficial effects of extracurricular activity linked in any way to the length (number of years) of involvement? Yes
Living in an economically disadvantaged family during adolescence may have a more (negative or positive) impact on achievement outcome than corresponding circumstances during childhood. Negative
What is America’s fastest-growing minority population? Latinas
How do Latina high school graduation rate compare to that of girls of other ethnic minorities? Very low
A classroom strategy in which students from different cultural backgrounds are placed in a cooperative group in which, together, they have to construct different parts of a project to reach a common goal. Jigsaw Classroom
Contact alone does not guarantee improved relations with diverse other students. Students should be encouraged to have _________________ ____________________ contact with diverse other students. Positive Personal
The United States and Australia are among the few countries in the world in which ________________ are an integral part of the public school system. Sports
Approximately ___ percent of all children from 3 to 21 years of age in the United States receive special education or related services. Within this group ___ percent receive special education services for a learning disability. 13.5; 5.4
An adolescent with a ______ ______ has difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language; the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, or spelling. Learning Disability
About ______ times as many boys as girls are classified as having a learning disability in the United States. Three
A disability in which children or adolescents consistently show one or more of the following characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Does ADHD occur more frequently in girls or in boys? Boys
Should ADHD be diagnosed by school teams? No
Recent estimates suggest that ADHD decreases in approximately ___________ of adolescents. One-third
An act spelling out broad mandates for services to all children and adolescents with disabilities. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
What are three characteristics of adolescents who are gifted, according to Ellen Winner? Precocity, marching to their own drummer, and a passion to master.
What fourth characteristic is also found in many gifted students? Information-processing skills
Created by: gmoore730