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Bristol Social Psychology Stereotypes

QuestionAnswerFlap 3
Social Cognition Brain processes behind social psychology (blank)
Opening a Social Categories Opens stereotype provides you with info & makes you alert to peculiar info
Stereotype components Cognitive, affective, behavioural how we feel, think and act towards a group
Structural effects of activating a stereotype attentional preservation, memory encoding & retrival (blank)
Informational effects of activating a stereotype target elaboration using info you already know (blank)
behavioural effects of activating a stereotype action initiation (blank)
Dovido et al (1986) Activation inevitable? Yes. "Could <black/white> be true of <trait>". Quicker response when concordent. BUT problem with stimulus (just words), making explicit judgements.
Purdue & Gurtman (1991) Activation inevitable? Invisible prime (young v old). Favourable traits faster for young than old. Unfavourable faster for old. BUT not steretypical of groups.
Devine (?) Activation inevitable? Two process model. Distiction between activation and application. Application levels vary depnding on prejudice. By replacing society's beliefs with your own personal beliefs you can inhibit activation.
Devine (?) exp Activation inevitable? Subliminal prime using vigillance task.Read abiguous passage abt "donald" & interpret behav. Primed = hostile, Prejudice ppl = more hostile.
Gilbert & Hixon (1991) Activation inevitable? When not? Woman (asian/white) turn over a card, POLI_E, also cog. depletion task, when cog busy, no stereotype activation, controvertial
Spencer et al (1998) Activation inevitable? When not? Repeated Gilbert & Hixon but also introduced self image threat by negative feedback. Activated when threatened.
Macrae et al (1997) Activation inevitable? When not? Temporary processing goals. Photo of woman/object. Semantic questions "alive?", pre-synaptic "count dots" & control. Then LDT. Only steretypic when semantic processing.
Definition of steretypic activation. Extent of accessibility of a stereotype. (blank)
Definition of application how much one uses a stereotype to judge a group (blank)
Flexibility to process expected and unexpected information Neocortical System: slow learning, semantic memory and beliefs, resistant to change (expected info) Hippocampal: fast learning, temporary representations & episodic memory that have comon access to consciousness (unexpected - rehearsal can then fit into schema)
Kunda & Sinclair (1999) Application model Applic & Act determined by motivation which is influenced by reasoning.
Motivational goals affecting act/applic comprehension & prejudice avoidance (less likely to) self enhancement (more likely to).
Fein & Spencer (1997) Self enhancement & act/applic look at job applicants that either jewish (by looks and name) or not. Ppts either fail/pass/control a test. Only those that passed didn't stereotype.
Sinclair & Kunda (1996) Self enhanceent field study Female professors that give bad marks deemed less competent that males that give equal marks (NB conclusions dodgey)
Unexpected info leads to individuation (blank)
Macrae et al (1999) Individuation stops under cognitive load.
Stereotype application on social judgements. eg self judgements after trait activation v exemplar activation do well if primed with professor, badly if primed with a specific professor.
Bargh (1996) category application & behaviour Primed with elderly = walk more slowly. priming leads to action tendancies.
Inhibition (neuron processes) Pyramidal cells have +ve feedback, GABA inhibits needed for coherent behaviour
Evidence for inhibition Negative priming, lateral inhibition (ambiguous words) & cognitive deficits (elderly) (blank)
Kunda & Thagrad (1996) if something fits many stereotypes, contradicting traits cancel out and are void. bit shit
Bodenhausen & Macrae (1998) lateral inhibition, cognitive mechanisms try to simplify categories achieve dominance by being salient, chronically accessible (and priming), chronically prejudice, momentory goals
Macrae, Boadenhausen & Milne (1995) evidence for inhibition during impression formation ppts primed with either "asian" or "woman", then LDT, those primed w woman = faster at woman words and, asian words inhibited compared to control.
Sinclair & Kunda (1999) inhibition in real life impression formation meet black doctor who either praises or criticises, if praised they inhibit black and activate doctor, if criticised then other way around
Locke, Cesareo & Johnston (under review). ppts shown aborigine/caucasian faces. Then do stroop task with stereotypic words. Low prejudice showed inhibition to steretypical aboriginal words compared to caucasian base line.
Created by: jh4782