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PS 334 Chp. 8

The process by which children and adolescents socialize parents, just as parents socialize them. Reciprocal Socialization
What are the most consistent findings regarding marital relationships and parenting? Happily married parents are more sensitive , responsive, warm, and affectionate toward their children and adolescents. Marital satisfaction is also linked to good parenting.
A developmental view that emphasizes the role of early parent-child relationships in constructing a basic way of relating to people throughout the life span. Continuity View
A developmental view that emphasizes change and growth in relationships over time. Discontinuity View
What changes in the adolescent can influence the parent-adolescent relationship? Puberty, expanded logical reasoning, increased idealistic thought, violated expectations, changes in schooling, peers, friendships, dating, and movement toward independence.
When is conflict between parents and adolescents, especially between mothers and sons, the most stressful? The apex of pubertal growth
Do early-maturing adolescents experience more or less conflict with parents than adolescents who mature late or on time? MORE conflict
What parental changes may contribute to parent-adolescent relationships? Marital satisfaction, economic burdens, career reevaluation and time perspective, and health and body concerns.
What typically happens to marital satisfaction when adolescents or emerging adults leave home? It increases.
Is the adolescent pregnancy rate in the United States now one of the lowest or one of the highest in the developed world? HIGHEST
What differences in parenting have been found between younger and older fathers? Older fathers are warmer, communicate better, encourage more achievement, place fewer demands on their children, are more lax on in enforcing rules, and show less rejection with their children.
Which parent is more likely to have a managerial role in parenting? Mothers
How are family-management practices related to students’ grades, self-responsibility, and school-related problems? What is one of the most important family-management practices in this regard? Most important is in maintaining a structured and organized family environment.
Which parental factor is most related to juvenile delinquency? A lack of adequate parental monitoring
What are the four styles of parenting emphasized by Diana Baumrind Authoritarian, authoritative, neglectful, indulgent.
A restrictive, punitive parenting style in which the parent exhorts the adolescent to follow the parent's directions and to respect work and effort. Authoritarian
A parenting style encouraging adolescents to be independent but still placing limits and controls on their actions. Authoritative
A parenting style in which the parent is very uninvolved in the adolescent's life. Neglectful
A parenting style in which parents are highly involved with their adolescents but place few demands or controls on them. Indulgent
This parenting style is associated with adolescents' socially incompetent behavior. Authoritarian
This parenting style is associated with adolescents' socially competent behavior. Authoritative
These parenting styles is associated with adolescents' socially incompetence, especially a lack of self-control. Neglectful and Indulgent
Which style of parenting do some parents use because they mistakenly believe it will produce a creative, confident adolescent? Indulgent
What basic four dimensions of parenting can be used to describe Baumrind’s four parenting styles? Acceptance, Responsiveness, demand, and control.
In general, researchers have found ____________________________ parenting to be related to positive aspects of development. Authoritative
How does Ruth Chao describe the parenting style of most Asian American families? More like training than parenting
Describe the typical Latino child-rearing style and strategies. Encourage development of a self and identity and requires respect and obedience.
How do African American families and non-Latino White families typically differ in the use of physical punishment? African Americans are more likely to use physical punishment than white families.
As roles have changed in contemporary society, do most fathers and mothers now tend to share equal responsibility for children and adolescents? yes
Fathers tend to spend from _________________________ to ________________________ as much time with children and adolescents as mothers do. one third to three fourths
Is the generation gap a significant problem for most parents and adolescents in our society? NO
A minority of adolescents (perhaps ______ to ______ percent) have a high degree of conflict with their parents. 20 to 25
What does most of parent-adolescent conflict center around? Small dilemmas
Are most adolescent conflicts with the mother or the father? Mother
The capacity to relinquish childlike dependence on parents. Emotional Autonomy
Is running away from home a sudden, abrupt event or a gradual process? Gradual Process
Bowlby and Ainsworth argue that ______________________ ____________________ in infancy is central to the development of social competence. Secure attachment
How do emerging adults’ relationships with their parents generally change when they leave home? It improves.
Approximately ____ percent of American adolescents have one or more siblings. 80
Sibling relationships in adolescence are not as close, not as intense, and more ____________________ than in childhood. Egalitarian
Are birth order effects strong predictors of adolescent behaviors? yes
The United States has the ____________ percentage of single-parent families compared with virtually all other developed countries. Highest
What has happened to the divorce rate in the United States since the 1980s? Slowly declined.
Does adjustment for parents and children in stepfamilies take less or more time than that required for parents and children in divorced families? More time
The uncertainty in stepfamilies about who is in or out of the family and who is performing or responsible for certain tasks in the family system. Boundary Ambiguity
Is early adolescence a particularly easier or more difficult time for the formation of a stepfamily? More difficult
Which has the more important effect on adolescent development, whether the parent works outside the home or the nature of the parents work? Nature of the parents work
What is the “three-to-six o’clock problem? The lack of adult supervision of children in the after-school hours.
Research suggests that children adopted as infants have the fewest adjustment difficulties, whereas those adopted after _______ years of age had the most problems. 10
The largest group of adolescents with gay male and lesbian parents are likely those who were born in the context of ______________________ relationships. Heterosexual
In research examining cross-cultural parenting styles, the most common pattern was a ________________ and ____________________ style, one that was neither permissive nor restrictive. Warm and controlling
What type of parenting is more common in the Arab world? Authoritarian
Created by: gmoore730