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A&P basics

Skeletal Anatomy

Define osteology The study of bones
Define arthrology The study of joints
How many bones are there in the adult body? 206 separate bones
How many bones are in the adult axial skeleton? 80 bones
What types bones are included in the axial skeleton? All that lie near the central axis of the body.
Name the specific bones in the axial skeleton. Skull: cranium (8) and facial bones (14) Hyoid Auditory ossicles (in ear) Vertebral column: cervical (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5) Sacrum and coccyx Thorax: sternum and ribs (14)
How many bones are included in the appendicular skeleton? 126 separate bones
What types of bones are included in the appendicular skeleton? All bones of upper and lower limbs (extremeties) and the shoulder and pelvic girdles.
Name the specific bones in the appendicular skeleton. clavicles, scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, hip bones, femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
Name the 4 different categories that bones can be classified as. Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones
What is the compact bone, or cortex, of long bones? A hard and dense bone tissue that makes the outer shell of the bone.
What is the purpose of compact bone? To protect and support the entire bone
What is the spongy, or cancellous, part of long bones? A highly porous part of the bone inside the compact bone at both ends that contains red bone marrow and is responsible for the production of red blood cells.
What is the hollow portion of the bone called in the body of a long bone? Medullary cavity
What is periosteum? A dense fibrous membrane that covers the bone except at articulating surfaces.
What are the articulating surfaces of long bone covered in? Hyaline cartilage
What is the significance of the periosteum? Essential for bone growth, repair and nutrition. Bones supplied by blood vessels through the periosteum.
What shape are short bones? Usually cuboidal.
What are short bones mainly made out of? Cancellous tissue with a thin outer covering of compact bone.
What are examples of short bones? The carpal and tarsal bones of the wrist and foot.
What are flat bones mainly made out of? Two plates of compact bone with cancellous bone and marrow between them.
What are examples of flat bones? Bones of the skull cap, sternum, ribs, and scapulae.
What is the narrow space between the inner and outer table of flat bones within the cranium called? Diploe
What is the purpose of flat bones? Provide protection for interior contents and broad surfaces for muscle attachment.
What are some examples of irregular bones? Vertebra, facial bones, bones of the base of the cranium, and bones of the pelvis.
What is ossification? The process by which bones form within the body
Where are RBC's produced in bone? In the red bone marrow of certain flat and irregular bones like the sternum, ribs, vertebra, pelvis, and ends of long bones.
What is the primary growth center of bones? The diaphysis; the first center of ossification that occurs in the midbody area. Later becomes the body of long bones.
What is the secondary growth center of bones? Epiphysis; located at the ends of the limbs of long bones.
What are epiphyseal plates? Cartilaginous plates found between the diaphysis and each epiphysis until skeletal growth is complete.
What are the 3 different classifications of the functions of joints? Synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis.
Synarthrosis joints are... Immovable joints
Amphiarthrosis joints are... joints with limited movement
Diarthrosis joints are... freely movable joints.
What are the 3 different classifications of the structure of joints? Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial
What are the 3 types of fibrous joints Syndesmoses, sutures, gomphoses
What are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints? Symphyses, Synchondroses
What are the 7 movement types of synovial joints? Plane (gliding), Ginglymus (hinge), Trochoid (pivot), Ellipsoid, Sellar (saddle) Spheroidal (ball and socket), Bicondylar.
Describe the movement of a plane (gliding) joint. Permits the least movement; a sliding or gliding motion between the articulating surfaces.
Give examples of plane (gliding) joints intermetacarpal, carpometacarpal, intercarpal, atlantoaxial joints between C1 and C2 vertebra.
Describe the movement of a ginglymus (hinge) joint Permit flexion and extension movements only.
Give examples of ginglymus (hinge) joints interphalangeal joints of both fingers and toes, and the elbow joint.
Describe the movement of trochoid (pivot) joints Allows rotational movement around a single axis.
Give examples of trochoid (pivot) joints Proximal and distal radio-ulnar joints of forearm. Joint between first and second cervical vertebrae
Describe the movement of ellipsoid joints Movement occurs primarily on one plane and is combined with a slight rotation. Allows flexion and extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction.
Give examples of ellipsoid joints 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints of the fingers, wrist joint, and metatarsophalangeal joints of the toes.
Describe the movements of sellar (saddle) joints Two saddle-like structures that fit together; allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and circumduction.
Give examples of sellar (saddle) joints 1st carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
Describe the movement of spheroidal (ball and socket) joints Allows greatest freedom of motion; allow flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and medial and lateral rotation.
Give examples of spheroidal (ball and socket) joints Hip joint and shoulder joint
Describe the movement of bicondylar joints Provide movement in a single direction; permit limited rotation.
Give examples of bicondylar joints knee and TMJ joints of jaw
Created by: roberts-5691