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I/O Psych Ch 9

Employee Motivation

QuestionAnswer
level of productivity before the implementation of a gainsharing plan baseline
1st step in Maslow’s needs hierarchy, concerning survival needs for food, air, water, and the like basic biological needs
positive or negative way in which a person views himself or herself as a whole chronic self-esteem
Korman’s theory that employees will be motivated to perform at levels consistent with their levels of self-esteem consistency theory
4th step in Maslow’s hierarchy, concerning the individual’s need for recognition and success ego needs
theory of job satisfaction stating that employees will be satisfied if their ratio of effort to reward is similar to that of other employees equity theory
Aldefer’s needs theory, which describes three levels of satisfaction: existence, relatedness, and growth ERG theory
Vroom’s theory that motivation is a function of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence expectancy theory
work motivation that arises from such non-personal factors as pay, coworkers, and opportunities for advancement extrinsic motivation
group incentive system in which employees are paid a bonus based on improvements in group productivity gainsharing
when high self-expectations result in higher levels of performance Galatea effect
method of increasing performance in which employees are given specific performance goals to aim for goal setting
when negative expectations of an individual cause a decrease in that individual’s performance Golem effect
system arranged by rank hierarchy
Herzberg’s two-factor theory, job-related elements that result from but do not involve the job itself hygiene factors
ratio of how much employees believe they put into their jobs to how much they believe they get from their jobs input/output ratio
in equity theory, the elements that employees put into their jobs inputs
extent to which people believe that they are responsible for and in control of their success or failure in life internal locus of control
work motivation in the absence of such external factors as pay, promotion, and coworkers intrinsic motivation
theory proposed by Hackman and Oldham that suggests that certain characteristics of a job will make the job more or less satisfying, depending on the particular needs of the worker job characteristics theory
incentive plan in which employees receive pay bonuses based on performance appraisal scores merit pay
force that drives an employee to perform well motivation
Herzberg’s two-factor theory, elements of a job that concern the actual duties performed by the employee motivators
according to trait theory, the extent to which a person desires to be successful need for achievement
extent to which a person desires to be around other people need for affiliation
according to trait theory, the extent to which a person desires to be in control of other people need for power
theory based on the idea that employees will be satisfied with jobs that satisfy their needs needs theory
type of learning based on the idea that humans learn to behave in ways that will result in favorable outcomes and learn not to behave in ways that result in unfavorable outcomes operant conditioning
theory that postulates that if employees perceive they are being treated fairly, they will be more likely to be satisfied with their jobs and motivated to do well organizational justice
in equity theory, what employees get from their jobs outputs
system in which employees are paid on the basis of how much they individually produce pay for performance
idea that reinforcement is relative both within an individual and between individuals Premack Principle
idea that if people believe that something is true, they will act in a manner consistent with that belief Pygmalion effect
method of recruitment in which job applicants are told both the positive and the negative aspects of a job realistic job preview
rank-ordered list of reinforcers for an individual reinforcement hierarchy
2nd step in Maslow’s hierarchy, concerning the need for security, stability, and physical safety safety needs
postulates that employees can be motivated by monitoring their own progress toward the goals they set and adjusting their behavior to reach those goals self-regulation theory
5th step in Maslow’s hierarchy, concerning the need to realize one’s potential self-actualization needs
extent to which a person views him or herself as a valuable and worthy individual self-esteem
idea that people behave in ways consistent with their self-image self-fulfilling prophecy
positive or negative way in which a person views him or herself in a particular situation situational self-esteem
3rd step in Maslow’s hierarchy, concerning the need to interact with other people social needs
motivation technique using such methods as personal attention, signs of approval, and expressions of appreciation social recognition
group incentive method in which employees are given the option of buying stock in the future at the price of the stock when the options were granted stock options
Herzberg’s needs theory, postulating that there are two factors involved in job satisfaction: hygiene factors and motivators two-factor theory
measure of an individual’s orientation toward intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation Work Preference Inventory
ability & skill determines whether a worker __ do a job can
motivation determines whether a worker __ do a job properly will
self-esteem, intrinsic motivation tendency, & need for achievement, which are most related to work motivation, are considered individual difference traits
theorized that employees high in self-esteem are more motivated and will perform better than employees low in self-esteem Korman
consistency theory takes relationship btwn self-esteem & motivation 1step further by stating employees try to perform at levels consistent with their self-esteem level
in consistency theory, desire to perform at levels consistent with self-esteem is compounded by the fact that employees with low self- esteem tend to __ their actual ability and performance underestimate
on the basis of consistency theory, we should be able to improve performance by increasing a(n) employee's self-esteem
to increase self-esteem employees can attend __ in which they are given insights into their strengths workshops
__ __ training another approach to increasing self-esteem outdoor experiential
employee is given a tack so easy that they will almost certainly succeed experience-with-success approach
experience-with-success approach is based on principle of self-fulfilling prophecy
relationship between self-expectation and performance, based on principle of self-fulling prophecy & experience-with-success approach , is called __ effect Galatea
to attain the Pygmalion effect, supervisor can be trained to communicate a feeling of __ in an employee confidence
can be explained by the idea that our expectations of others' performance lead us to treat then differently Pygmalion & Golem effects
when an employee becomes aware of others' expectations & matches his own with them, they will perform in a manner consistent with those expectations
Sandler argues that our expectations are communicated to employees through __ __ nonverbal cues
efforts to teach supervisors Pygmalion __ __ have not been successful leadership style
when employees are __ motivated, they do not particularly enjoy the tasks, but are motivated to perform well to receive some type of rewards or avoid negative consequences extrinsically
people who are intrinsically motivated do not need __ __ external rewards
in people who are intrinsically motivated, being paid for something they enjoy may __ their satisfaction & intrinsic motivation reduce
dimensions of intrinsic motivation in which WPI yields scores enjoyment & challenge
dimensions of extrinsic motivation in which WPI yields scores compensation & outward orientation
Theory developed by __ suggests that employees differ in extent to which they are motivated by the need for achievement, affiliation, and power McClelland
employees who have a strong need for achievement are motivated by jobs that are challenging and over which they have some control
employees who do not have a strong need for achievement are satisfied when jobs involve little challenge and have high probability for success
employees who have strong need for affiliation are motivated by jobs in which they can work with and help others
employees who have a strong need for power are motivated by a desire to __ others rather than simply to be successful influence
work motivation & job satisfaction are determined by discrepancy btwn what we want, value, & expect and what the job actually provides
a realistic job preview is important because if the organization does less than promised, employees will be less motivated to perform well and will retaliate by doing less than they promised
according to job characteristic theory, employees desire jobs that are __ meaningful
according to job characteristic theory, employees desire jobs that provide them with opportunity to be __ __ for the outcome of their work personally responsible
opportunity for employees to be personally responsible for their work autonomy
according to job characteristic theory, employees desire jobs that provide them with __ of the results of their efforts feedback
according to job characteristic theory, jobs will have __ __ is they allow employees to use skill variety & task identification motivation potential
employees are allowed to use a variety of skills skill variety
employees are able to connect their efforts to an outcome task identification
employees are able to connect their efforts to an end result which has meaning, is useful, or is appreciated by coworkers as well as by others in society task significance
meta-analysis results demonstrate that jobs with __ __ __ score result in higher levels of employee satisfaction and performance, and lower levels of absenteeism high motivating potential
focus on employees' needs & values Maslow's needs hierarchy, ERG theory, & two-factor theory
Maslow believed that needs are hierarchical, meaning lower-level needs must be satisfied before an individual will be concerned with the next level of needs
When asked how well they enjoy their job people who are at the level of basic biological needs, in Maslow's needs hierarchy, might reply I can't complain it pays the bills
after basic biological needs are satisfied, in Maslow's needs hierarchy, a job that merely provides food & shelter will no longer be satisfying
if an employee has satisfied basic biological needs, in Maslow's needs hierarchy, they will remain satisfied with their job only if the workplace is safe
often referred to as job security; can affect job motivation psychological safety
safety needs, in Maslow's needs hierarchy, include psychological & physical safety
importance of safety needs was demonstrated in 2008 survey asking employees about work factors that were most important to them, and 3 of the top 4 needs were related to the safety or security factor
it is important that organizations make a conscious effort to satisfy social needs when job itself does not encourage social activity
an organization can satisfy __ needs through praise, awards, promotions, salary increases, publicity, etc. ego
an employee striving for self-actualization needs wants to reach their __ in every task potential
potential problem with Maslow's needs hierarchy is in the __ of levels number
potential problem with Maslow's needs hierarchy is that some people do not __ __ the hierarchy, instead skipping levels progress up
potential problem with Maslow's needs hierarchy is that it predicts that once the needs at 1 level are satisfied, the next needs level should become __ __, which does not always happen most important
although Maslow's needs hierarchy may not be supported by research, it still __ __ organizations can follow to increase motivation & satisfaction provide guidelines
Aldefer developed a needs theory that only has 3 levels, ERG, because of technical problems with Maslow's hierarchy
major difference btwn Aldefer's theory & Maslow's needs hierarchy is Aldefer suggested that a person can skip levels
Aldefer's ERG theory explains why a higher-level need sometimes does not become __ __ once a lower-level need has been satisfied more important
with ERG theory Aldefer believed that sometimes the next higher level may be blocked, so then employee becomes frustrated & places more importance on previous level
Herzberg believed that job-related factors could be divided into hygiene factors & motivators
level of responsibility, amount of job control, & interest that work holds for employee, in considering two-factor theory, are examples of motivators
Herzberg believes that hygiene factors are __ but not __ for job satisfaction & motivation necessary; sufficient
in two-factor theory, if a hygiene factor is not present at a(n) __ __, employee will be dissatisfied & less motivated adequate level
in two-factor theory, if all hygiene factors are represented adequately, employee's satisfaction level will be neutral
in two-factor theory, only the presence of both motivators & hygiene factors can bring job satisfaction & motivation
researchers have criticized Herzberg's two-factor theory because of methods used to develop two factors
researchers have criticized Herzberg's two-factor theory because of the idea that factors such as pay can be __ hygiene factors & motivators both
researchers have criticized Herzberg's two-factor theory because of the fact that few independent research studies have replicated Herzberg's findings
for goal setting to be most successful, the goals themselves should posses qualities represented by SMART
specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, & time-bound SMART
are concrete and specific properly set goals
more specific the goal the __ productivity greater
problems with goal setting include ambiguity & lack of specific guidelines
employees observe the levels of motivation & satisfaction of other employees and then model those behaviors
Regarding lack of specificity in goal setting, employees believe that with constant changing environment, it is difficult to set specific goals because goals would need constant adjustment
Properly set goals are __ Measureable
Properly set goals are __ but attainable High
will most affect performance when employees are committed to reaching the goals level of goal difficulty
If employee believes they __ __the goal, commitment to achieve the goal is likely to be high can accomplish
If employee agrees goal is __ , commitment to achieve the goal is likely to be high Worthwhile
If employee believes they will be __ for achieving the goal, commitment to achieve the goal is likely to be high Rewarded
Setting goals that are too difficult to be accomplished can result in decreased performance and increase unethical behavior
Tend to set goals higher Optimists
Tend to set goals lower Pessimists
In the __ __ schema, people scoring high in conscientiousness, extraversion, & openness & low in agreeableness & neuroticism also tend to set high goals Big Five
__ __ goals are relevant Properly set
Goals work best when there is a __ __ for their completion Time frame
Several meta-analyses have indicated that __ in goal setting does not increase performance Participating
Meta-analysis indicates that employee participation in goal setting increases __ to reaching a goal Commitment
To __ __ of goal setting, feedback should be provided to employees on their progress in reaching their goals increase effectiveness
Can include verbally telling employees how they are doing, placing chart on a wall, or using nonverbal communications Feedback
Feedback best increases performance when it is __ & __ Positive; informational
Feedback can decrease performance when it is __ & __ Negative; controlling
Supervisors should indicate their willingness to provide feedback and then reinforce employees who seek it To encourage employees to ask for feedback
Feedback is __ when it is given positively with goal of encouraging & reinforcing positive behavior Constructive
For feedback to be effective it must be given when employees do something __, not only when they make __ Properly; mistakes
Concept of self-regulation is a(n) __ on goal setting & feedback Extension
With __ __ goals self-regulation becomes more difficult multiple complex
In self-regulation, employees must make __ __ to be aware of their goals conscious effort
In self-regulation, employees must monitor their __ __ Goal progress
In self-regulation, employees must __ __ so that decisions can be made when encountering competing goals set priorities
Essential strategy for motivating employees is to provide __ for employees to accomplish goals set by an organization Incentives
Basis for incentive systems, which state that employees will engage in behaviors for which they are rewarded & avoid behaviors for which they are punished Operant conditioning principles
Factor in determining effectiveness of incentive programs includes __ of incentives Timing
Factor in determining effectiveness of incentive programs includes contingency of __ Consequences
Factor in determining effectiveness of incentive programs includes __ of incentive used Type
Factor in determining effectiveness of incentive programs includes use of __ versus __ incentives Individual-based; group-based
Factor in determining effectiveness of incentive programs includes use of __ vs __ incentives Positive; negative
Factor in determining effectiveness of incentive programs includes fairness of __ __ reward system
Research indicates that a(n) __ is most effective if it occurs soon after the performance of the behavior Reinforcer/punisher
Sometimes the timing of the consequence by itself May not be enough
Reward & punishment must be made __ upon performance, and this must be clear to employees if the goal is motivation Contingent
If reward/punishment cannot be administered immediately, employee must be told purpose of __ so link btwn behavior & outcome is clear Consequence
Since different employees have different values, supervisor should have access to & be trained to administer different Types of reinforcers
It is important to conduct periodic __ __ about what employees want because supervisors & employees often have different ideas about what is rewarding & important Employment surveys
Need for variety is rewards is also True of punishments
Best way to explain Premack Principle is to __ __ __ on which an employee lists his preferences for a variety of reinforcers construct reinforcement hierarchy
When designed poorly incentive systems can result in increased stress & decreased health/safety
Rather than providing financial incentives, many organizations reward employee behavior through Recognition programs
Social recognition is considered Informal recognition
Designed to make high levels of individual performance financially worthwhile Individual incentive plans
problem with individual incentive plans is difficulty in __ individual performance Measuring
problem with individual incentive plans is that they can foster __ among employees Competition
problem with individual incentive plans is that for it to be effectively motivate employees it is essential that Employees understand the system
Pay for performance & merit pay are __ __ individual incentive plans Most common
Pay for performance is also called Earnings-at-risk (EAR)
Pay for performance plan; being paid for each unit of something sold commission
Pay for performance plan; being paid for each unit of something produced Piecework
1st step in creating more complicated pay-for-performance plan is to determine Average/standard amount of production
Research indicates that employees paid flat rate plus __ __ perform at levels equal to employees who are paid on a piece-rate-plan Performance bonus
Major difference btwn merit pay & pay for performance is that __ __ __ base their incentives on performance appraisal scores merit pay systems
Merit pay is potentially good technique for jobs in which productivity is difficult to measure
Employees are __ _ with merit pay if they help develop the system Most satisfied
Increases are based on subjective performance appraisals Biggest problems with merit pay
Some supervisor __ performance appraisal sores to __ their employee’s pay & positive feelings towards the supervisor Inflate; increase
Supervisors will sometimes inflate performance appraisal ratings when they believe Base salaries for certain positions are too low
Problem with merit pay is that __ or __ often changes with each fiscal year Availability; amount
For merit pay to be successful, __ must be consistently available and amount must __ enough to motivate employees Funding; great
Idea behind group-based/organization-based incentive plans, is to get employees to __ in success or failure of organization Participate
group-based/organization-based incentive plans reward employees for Reaching group goals
Problem with group-based/organization-based incentive plans is they can encourage Social loafing
Problem with group-based/organization-based incentive plans is they can get so __ that they become difficult to explain Complicated
Provide employees with a percentage of profits above a certain amount Profit sharing
Profit sharing will motivate employees only if they understand link between Performance and profits
Profit sharing will motivate employees only if employees believe that company has __ __ of making a profit Reasonable chance
Gainsharing ties group-wide financial incentives to __ in organizational performance Improvements
Gainsharing programs consist of cooperative/participative __ __ Management philosophy
Gainsharing programs consist of incentive __ __ improvements Based on
Gainsharing programs consist of group-based __ __ Bonus formula
In Gainsharing, 1st company monitors __ __over some period of time to derive a baseline performance measures
In Gainsharing, once company derives baseline, __ __ above the baseline are set Productivity goals
In Gainsharing, once productivity goals are set, employees are told that they will receive bonuses for __ __ that the goal is reached Each period
In Gainsharing, constant feedback is provided to employees on how current performance is in relation to the goal
Review of Gainsharing studies indicates improvements in Productivity, employee & union satisfaction
Review of Gainsharing studies indicates declines in Absenteeism
Stock options represent the __ __ of organizational incentive plans Most complicated
Stock options allow employees to share in __ __ of an organization Long-term success
Expectancy theory consists of Expectancy, instrumentality, & valence
Perceived relationship between amount of effort employee puts in & resulting outcome Expectancy (E)
Extent to which outcome of worker’s performance, if noticed, results in particular consequence Instrumentality (I)
Extent to which employee values particular consequence Valence (V)
To predict employee’s level of motivation, expectancy theory, Motivation = E (I x V)
In terms of expectancy, if employee believes no matter how hard they work they will never reach necessary level of performance, then their motivation will probably be low
In terms of instrumentality, employee will only be motivated if their behavior results in some specific consequence
In expectancy theory, for a behavior to have a desired consequence first behavior Must be noticed
In expectancy theory, for a behavior to have a desired consequence second noticed behavior Must be rewarded
For valence, if employee is rewarded, reward must be Something they value
In addition to predicting employee effort, expectancy theory has been applied successfully to predict Speeding by drivers & cheating by students
Expectancy theory can also be used to suggest ways to __ employee motivation Change
Major criticism of expectancy theory involves Components equation
Researchers have suggested that adding components, to expectancy theory equation, would be more appropriate than multiplication because A zero in any component results in a prediction of zero motivation, even when other components are high
In expectancy theory, even though instrumentality & valence can be reliably measured, theory is most predictive when People behave rationally and have an internal locus of control
Proponents of punishment to change employee behavior argue that is applied properly it not only reduces undesired behaviors but also Sets an example for other employees
Opponents of punishment argue that it __ __ only in the short run changes behaviors
Opponents of punishment argue that it does not __ employee proper behaviors Teach
Opponents of punishment argue that it causes __ Resentment
Punishment can cause employees to learn __ __ to break rules, rather than teaching them not to break rules New methods
In comparing reward & punishment behaviors of leaders found that although both affect employee behaviors & attitudes, __ of effect is stronger for rewards Magnitude
Equity theory is based on premise that out levels of motivation & job satisfaction are related to __ __ we believe we are being treated in comparison with others How fairly
In equity theory, if we feel we are being treated unfairly we attempt to change our __ or __ until situation appears to be fair Beliefs; behaviors
Components in equity theory involved in perception of fairness include Inputs, outputs, & input/output ratio
Inputs can include Time, effort, education, & expertise
Outputs can include Pay, benefits, challenge, & responsibility
According to equity theory, when employee’s ratio is lower than those of others, they will become Dissatisfied & motivated to make ratios equal in one/more ways
to make ratios equal in one/more ways employees can seek __ __ by asking for a raise or more responsibility Greater outputs
to make ratios equal in one/more ways employees can __ __, by not working as hard or reduce attendance Reduce inputs
In equity theory, employees can restore equity by __ input/output ratio differences Rationalizing
Research has supported idea that our motivation decreases when Out input/output ratios are lower than others
Study found that employees’ motivation increased when coworkers received __ __ for their behavior Appropriate sanctions
Degree of inequity employee feels when underpaid appears to be a function of whether employee Chose actions that resulted in underpayment
When employee input/output ratio is higher than others, prediction would be that employee would Still strive for equal ratios by increasing inputs of decreasing outputs
Organizational justice theory focuses on __ of how decisions are made Process
Organizational justice theory focuses on __ of decisions Outcomes
Organizational justice theory focuses on way in decisions & other info are __ to employees Communicated
Process on how decision are made, in Organizational justice theory Procedural justice
Outcomes of decisions, Organizational justice theory Distributive justice
Way in which decisions & other info are communicated to employees, in organizational justice theory Interactional justice
According to research, employees with high self-esteem are likely to be motivated and perform well
According to research by Eden (1998), training supervisors to use the Pygmalion Leadership Style does not increase subordinate self-esteem
__ needs are the third level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs social
Brian assigns tasks that are challenging, yet achievable and specifically tells employees what he expects from them. It sounds like Brian believes in goal setting theory
Operant conditioning focuses on reinforcement of behavior
Benefits provide __ and variable pay provides __ security; incentive
The sales manager for Clinton Inhalants has promised a $5,000 bonus to any sales representative who increases sales by 500%. According to the __ component of expectancy theory, this plan will not motivate employees expectancy
Employees who work with highly motivated coworkers are likely to be ___ than employees who work with unmotivated coworkers more motivated
Created by: lfrancois