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APA Chapter 6 -Final

Study Notecards for Chapter 6 of APA 6th Edition

QuestionAnswer
Cite the work of those individuals whose ___________, _____________, and _____________ have directly impacted your work. ideas, theories, and research
For most articles aim to cite ____ or _____ of the most representative sources for each key point. 1 or 2
Whether _________, _______________, or ____________ you must credit the source. paraphrasing, quoting the author directly, or describing an idea that influenced your work,
Refers to the practice of claiming credit for the words, ideas, and concepts of others. Plagiarism
The practice of presenting one's own previously published word as though it were new. Self-plagiarism
When quoting, always provide the ______, _______, and ________________ or ______________ in the text and include a complete reference in the reference list. author, year, and specific page citation, or paragraph citation (in non-paginated material)
If the quotation comprises fewer than 40 words where should it go? incorporate it into text and enclose the quotation with double quotation marks.
If the quotation appears mid-sentence what should you do? (How do you punctuate and cite?) end the passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence.
Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the "therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity about the adolescent without adequately responding to the adolescent's needs or concerns" (p. 541), cont Yes, this is punctuated/cited correctly.
If the quotation appears at the end of a sentence what should you do? (How do you punctuate and cite?) Close the quoted passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and end with a period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis.
Confusing the issue is the overlapping nature of roles in palliative care, whereby "medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; nonmedical needs may be addressed by anyone on the team" (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112) Yes, this is punctuated/cited correctly.
If the quotation comprises 40 or more words how do you display it? In a freestanding block of text OMIT the quotation marks.
How should a block quotation look? -Start on a new line and indent the block about a HALF inch from the left margin. -Indent the first line each additional paragraph an additional half inch. -Double-space the entire quotation.
How do you cite and punctuate a block quotation? At the end of the block quotation, cite the quoted source and page or paragraph number in parentheses after the final punctuation mark.
True or False: If the quoted source is cited in the sentence introducing the block quote, only the page or paragraph number is needed at the end of the quotation. (e.g "In 1997, Purcell contradicted this view...) TRUE
When paraphrasing an idea, you ARE or ARE NOT encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text. You ARE encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number when paraphrasing.
How do you credit direct quotations of online material? Give the author, year, and page number in parentheses.
What if the electronic source does not have a page numbers? If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers. Use the abbreviation para.
Basu and Jones (2007) went so far as to suggest the need for a new "intellectual framework in which to consider the nature and form of regulation in cyberspace" (para. 4). Proper example of how to cite from an electronic source with no page numbers, but visible paragraph numbers.
If the document includes headings and neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible how do you cite? Cite the heading and the number of the paragraph, following it to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material.
In their study, Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) found that "the level of perceived disability in patients with fibromyalgia seemed best explained by their mental health condition and less by their physical condition" (Discussion section, para. 1). Proper example of how to cite from an electronic source with no page numbers or paragraph numbers.
What if heading titles are too unwieldy to cite in full? Use a short title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation.
"Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating consumers and changing consumption behavior" (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, "Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted," para. 4) How to shorten titles in parenthetical citations. (Notice Comma between shorten title and quotation mark)
The quotation must follow the __________, _________, and _____________________ of the original source EVEN if the original source is incorrect. wording, spelling, and interior punctuation
If any incorrect spelling, punctuation, or grammar in the source might confuse readers, insert the word _______ _sic_; italicized and bracketed, IMMEDIATELY after the error in the quotation. Note:( _stands for italics_)
What are changes from the source which require no explanation? (3 cases) -the first letter of the first word in a quotation may be changed to an uppercase or lowercase -The punctuation mark at the end of a sentence may be changed fit the syntax. -Single quotation marks may be changed to double quotation marks and vice versa
What are changes from source which require explanations? -Omitting Material -Inserting Material -Adding Emphasis
What do you do when you omit material in a sentence? Use three spaced ellipsis points (...) within a sentence to indicate that you have omitted material from the original source.
What do you do when you omit material between two sentences? Use four points. -The 1st point represents the period at the end of the sentence quoted, and the three spaced ellipsis points follow.
When should you NOT use ellipsis? At the beginning or end of any quotation UNLESS, to prevent misinterpretation, you need to emphasize that the quotation begins or ends in midsentence.
How do you insert material? Use brackets, NOT parenthesis, to enclose material such as an addition or explanation inserted in a quotation by some person other than the original author.
"They are studying, from an evolutionary perspective, to what extent [children's] play is a luxury that can be dispensed with when there are too many other competing claims on the growing brain..." (Henig, 2008, p. 40) GOOD example of brackets and ellipsis
How do you add emphasis in a quoted source? Italicize the word or words. Immediately after the italicized words, insert within brackets the words _emphasis added_, that is [emphasis added]
DO or DO NOT omit citations embedded within the original material you are quoting. DO NOT
When you are citing a citation that is embedded within the original material should you include it in the references? No need to include it in the references.
"In the United States, the American Cancer Society (2007) estimated that about 1 million cases of NMSC and 59, 940 cases of melanoma would be diagnosed in 2007, with melanoma resulting in 8, 110 deaths" (Miller et al., 2009, p. 209). CORRECT example of how to include citations in a quote
Indicates that the material is reproduced exactly as it appeared originally, without modifications, in the way in which it was intended. Reprinting
Refers to the modification of material so that it is suitable for a new purpose. Adaptation
APA policy permits authors to use, with some exptions, a maximum of ______ figures or tables from a journal article or book chapter, single text extracts of fewer than _____ words, or a series of text extracts that total fewer than _______ words WITHOUT r 3 figures or tables fewer than 400 words fewer than 800 words WITHOUT requesting permission from APA.
How do you show that you have obtained written permission from the copyright owner? append a footnote to the quoted material with a superscript number, and in the footnote acknowledge permission from the owner of the copyright.
Each reference cited in text MUST appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference must be cited in text. True or False? True
What are the two kinds of material that are cited ONLY in text? -references to classical words such as the Bible and the Qur'an, whose sections are standardized across editions, and references to personal communications. -References in meta-analysis are not cited in text unless they are also mentioned in the text.
Should you include suffixes, such as Jr. when including an in text citation? NO
If the name of the author appears as part of the narrative cite only the year of publication in parentheses, otherwise... ex: Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples place both the name and the year, separated by a comma, in parentheses ex: Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003)
How do you cite a work with 2 authors? Cite both names every time the reference occurs in text.
How do you cite a work with 3, 4, or 5, authors? Cite ALL authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within the paragraph.
What should you do if two references of more than three surnames with the same year shorten to the same form? Cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al.
In running text how to you precede the final name in a multiple-author citation? use the word "and" Example: as Kurtines and Szapocznik (2003) demonstrated
In parenthetical material, in tables and captions, and in the reference list, how do you join the names? Join the names by an ampersand (&) Example: as has been shown (Joreskog & Sorbom, 2007)
How do you cite a work with six or more authors? Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.
How do names of groups that serve as authors look in citations? Usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation.
What is the rule for when you should or should not abbreviate a group that serves as an author? The general rule is you need to give enough information in the text citation for the reader to locate the entry in the reference list without difficulty.
How do you do in text citations when the reference list includes publications by two or more primary authors with the same surname? Include the first author's initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs.
What do you cite when a work has no identified author? cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year
In citations what should you put around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page? Double Quotations
In citations what should you do to the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure, or a report? Italicize
How do you treat legal works? Like works with no authors.
How do you cite a text when the author is listed as "Anonymous"? Cite in the text the word anonymous followed by a comma and a date. (Anonymous, 1998)
How do you order two or more works in a parentheses? Alphabetically in the same order as they appear in the reference list (Including citations that would otherwise shorten to et al.)
How do you arrange two or more words by the same author? In year of citation w/ in-press citations listed last Example: Past research (Gogel, 1990, 2006, in press)
How do you cite works with the same authors in the same years? Add suffixes a, b, and c, and so forth after the year. Example: Several studies (Derryberry & Reed, 2005a, 2005b, in press-a; Rothbart, 2003a, 2003b)
How should you list and separate 2 or more different authors in the same parentheses? Alphabetical order by surname separated by a semicolon (Minor, 2001; see also Adams, 1999; Storandt, 2007)
When should you use secondary sources? SPARINGLY. 1. When the original work is out of print 2. Unavailable through usual sources 3. Not available in English
How do you treat a secondary source in text? name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source Ex: Allport's diary (as cited in Nicolson, 2003)
When dealing with secondary sources, do you list the original text in the references? NO, just the secondary source. (If you did not read the secondary source)
In classical works how do you cite when the publication date is inapplicable? Cite the year of translation you used, preceded by trans., or the year of the version you used, followed by version. Ex: (Aristotle, trans. 1931)
True of False: Reference list entries are NOT required for major classical works? True
What information do you include if you are trying to cite a specific part of a source? Indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in text. Examples: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005, p. 10) and/or (Shimamura, 1989, Chapter 3)
When should you give page numbers for quotations? ALWAYS
True of false: You should always include personal communications in the reference list. FALSE..because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list.
How do you cite personal communications in text? Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a data as possible. Example: T.K Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator(s)
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement
What type of numerals does APA use? Arabic numerals
In general a reference should contain what four things? 1. Author Name 2. Date of publication 3. Title of the Work 4. Publication Data
In references give surnames and initials for up to and including ______ authors. Seven
What should you do in the references when authors number 8 or more? Include the first six author's names, then insert three ellipsis points, and add the last author's name.
What should you do if the reference list includes different authors with the same surname and first initial? Give the author's full names in brackets. Ex: Jane, P. [Paul]. (1876)
In the references how do you deal with an authors name who is hyphenated? Retain the hyphen and include a period after each initial. Example: (Lamour, J.-B. for Jean-Baptiste Lamour)
In the references what instances do you use commas? 1. Separate surnames and initials 2. Separate initials and suffixes 3. Separate authors
When do you use an amperstand (&) in the references? When you have two to seven authors, use an ampersand before the last author.
With group authors you should spell out the full name of the group in the references. What punctuation mark follows this? A period follows the author element.
In the references what do you do if authors are listed with the word with? Include them in the reference in parentheses ex: Bulatao, E. (with Winford, C.A)
In a reference what do you do with title with no author? Move the title to the author position, before the date of publication. A period follows the title.
In the reference list how do you treat the editor? Move the editors to the authors list and use the abbreviation Ed. or Eds. in parentheses after the last editors name.
The name of the book editor should be preceded my the word _______ when it is a chapter in an edited book. _In_ (in italics)
In a reference to chapter in an edited book, invert the _____________________ but do not invert ______________________ name. -Authors -Book Editors
For a book with no editor, simply include the word _______________. in before the book title.
For archival sources, indicate an estimated date that is reasonably certain but not stated on the document by using ______________. ca. circa
When putting the article or chapter title in the references what are the procedures? 1. Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle 2 do not italicize the title OR place quotation marks around it 3. Finish the element with a period.
When putting a periodical title in the reference what are the procedures? 1. Give the periodical title in full 2. In uppercase and lowercase letter 3. Italicize the name of the periodical
If nonroutine information is important for identification and retrieval where should you put it in the references? Provide it in brackets immediately after the title and any parenthetical information.
Brackets indicate a _______________________, not a title. description of form
How do you give volume numbers in the references? after the periodical title, italicize it. Do not use Vol. before the number.
Along with the volume number what should you include? The issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number; do NOT italicize it. Give inclusive page numbers on which the cited material appears. ex: Social Science Quarterly, 84, 508-525.
The names of US states and territories are abbreviated in the ______________ and ____________. Reference List and in the Method Section
To cite locations outside of the US __________________________________. Spell out the city and the country names.
When the author is also the publisher, use ___________________________________. _Author_ to indicate the publisher
http: Protocol
www.apa.org host name
monitor/oct00 path to document
workplace.html file name of specific document
All DOI numbers begin with... a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash.
The DOI is typically located where? on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice.
Use this format for the DOI in references: doi:XXXXXXX
If not DOI is assigned what should you do? provide the homepage URL of the journal or of the book or report publisher.
DO or DO NOT insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines DO NOT
In general, it IS or IS NOT necessary to include database information. IS NOT
Created by: 39804821