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Gen Chem part 3 ch 4

molecular equation 1. Equations that describe the chemicals put into the water and the product molecules are called molecular equations. 2 KOH(aq) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) ® 2 KNO3(aq) + Mg(OH)2(s)
complete ionic equation 1. Equations that describe the material’s structure when dissolved are called complete ionic equations. 2K+(aq) + 2OH−(aq) + Mg2+(aq) + 2NO3−(aq) ® 2K+(aq) + 2NO3−(aq) + Mg(OH)2(s
spectator ions Ions that are both reactants and products are called spectator ions
net ionic equations: An ionic equation in which the spectator ions are removed is called a net ionic equation
summarizing Aqueous equations:molecular equation- is a chemical equation showing the complete, neutral formulas for every compound in a reaction.
summarizing Aqueous equations: complete ionic equation- is a chemical equation showing all of the species as they are actually present in solution.
summarizing Aqueous equations:net ionic equation- is an equation showing only the species that actually change during the reaction.
acid-base reaction or another name is a neutralizing reaction it reacts with a base and the two neutralize each other, PRODUCING WATER!
gas-evolution reaction A gase forms, resulting in bubbling. The reactions occur when the anion from one reactant combines with the cation of the other.
Arrhenius definitions: 1.acids form: 2. Bases: 1.produces H+ ions in a solution 2. substance that produces OH- ions in awueneous solution.
know table 4.2 on page 156!
what do you get when you mix an acid and a base? It's called an acid-base reaction 1. You get water! 2. Acid+Base-->water+salt
titration: 1.a substance in a solution of known concentration is reacted with another substance in a solution of UNKOWN concentration.
what is the end point: In the titration, the unknown solution is added to a known amount of another reactant until the reaction is just completed. At this point, called the endpoint, the reactants are in their stoichiometric ratio.
equivalance point: 1. At the endpoint of an acid-base titration, the number of moles of H+ equals the number of moles of OH a) also known as the equivalence point
indicator: 1. the equivalence point is typically signaled by an indicator. 2. A dye whose color depend on the acidity or basicity of the solution.
titrant: The titrant is the base solution in the burette.
gas-evolution reaction 1. 2 aqueneous solutions mix to form a gaseous product that bubbles out of solution. 2.Other reactions form a gas by the decomposition of one of the ion exchange products into a gas and water
oxidation-reduction reactions or redox reactions: Other kinds of reactions involve transferring electrons from one atom to another – these are called oxidation-reduction reactions 2. the reusting of iron, leaching of hair, and production of electiricity in batteries invove redox reactions.
oxidation and reduction 1. oxidation: is the loss of electrons 2. reduction: is the gain of electrons.
oxidation states or oxidation number: Chemists assign a number to each element in a reaction called an oxidation state that allows them to determine the electron flow in the reaction even though they look like them, oxidation states are not ion charges!
oxidation states (continued) a)oxidation states are imaginary charges assigned based on a set of rules b)ion charges are real, measurable charges
Know rules for assigning oxidation states on page 164!
rules for assigning oxidation states:(rule 1 and 2) 1. free elements have an oxidation state = 0 Na = 0 and Cl2 = 0 in 2 Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2. monatomic ions have an oxidation state equal to their charge Na = +1 and Cl = −1 in NaCl
rules for assigning oxidation states (rules 3a) 3.(a) the sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms in a compound is 0 Na = +1 and Cl = −1 in NaCl, (+1) + (−1) = 0
rules for assigning oxidation states (rules 3b) 3.(b)the sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms in a polyatomic ion equals the charge on the ion N = +5 and O = −2 in NO3–, (+5) + 3(−2) = −1
rules for assigning oxidation states rules(4a & 4b) 4. (a) Group I metals have an oxidation state of +1 in all their compounds Na = +1 in NaCl 4.(b) Group II metals have an oxidation state of +2 in all their compounds Mg = +2 in MgCl2
rules for assigning oxidation states rules (rule 5) in their compounds, nonmetals have oxidation states according to the table below nonmetals higher on the table take priority
oxidation and reduction must occur together. 1. Oxidation and reduction must occur simultaneously a) if an atom loses electrons another atom must take them
oxidizing agent: is always reduced 1. The reactant that oxidizes an element in another reactant is called the oxidizing agent a) the oxidizing agent contains the element that is reduced
reducing agent: is always oxidized 1. The reactant that reduces an element in another reactant is called the reducing agent a) the reducing agent contains the element that is oxidized



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