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# Ch 5A Physics

### Electricity

The Study of stationary electric charges. Electrostatics
When an object has too few or too many electrons, it is said to be... electrified
3 ways electrification can be created Contact, Friction, Induction
A connection that causes electrons to flow from one place to another. Contact
The rubbing off of electrons by some kind of object. Friction
Magnetic field around charges will interact with each other and push charges to opposite end of the other object. Electrons are grounded as a way to get them out. Involves no touching. Induction
Describe Law #1 of Electrostatics Unlike charges attract, like charges repel. Electric field radiates outward from a positive charge and inward toward a negative charge.
The force of attraction between unlike charges or repulsion between like charges is due to the electric field. This force is called.... electrostatic force
Describe Law #2 of Electrostatics COULOMBS LAW: The electrostatic force is directly proportional to the product of the electrostatic charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. F=k(QaQb/d^2)
Describe Law #3 How electric charges are distributed: When an object becomes electrified, the electrons spread out over the surface of the object
Describe Law #4 Where electric charges concentrate: along the sharpest curvature of the surface (like a cattle prod)
The force with which electrons travel; the function of difference in number of electrons between 2 points Potential difference
The study of electric charges in motion Electrodynamics
Any substance through which electrons can flow easily Conductor
Any material that does not allow electron flow Insulator
A material that under some conditions behaves as an insulator and in other conditions behaves as a conductor. Semiconductor
A material or object in which electrons flow very easily. As temperature decreases the resistance decreases. Usually happens at low temperatures. Superconductor
According to Ben Franklin, positive charges move towards negative charges which stay put. Conventional current
This is created when the resistance of electron flow is controlled and the conductor is made into a closed path. Electric circuit (measured in Amperes)
Describe Ohm's law and state the formula The voltage across the total circuit or any portion of the circuit is equal to the current times the resistance. R=V/I and I=V/R
In a ____ _____ all circuit elements are connected in a line along the same conductor. Series circuit
State the rules for a series circuit 1. The total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. 2. The current through each circuit element is the same and is equal to the total circuit current. 3. The total voltage is equal to the sum of the voltages across each circuit.
A ____ ____ contains elements that are connected at their ends rather than lying in a line along a conductor. Parallel circuit
State the rules for a parallel circuit 1. The sum of the currents thru each circuit is equal to the total circuit current. 2. The voltage across each circuit element is the same and is equal to the total circuit voltage. 3. total resistance=inverse of the sum of the reciprocals of each resis
List the 4 things that influence resistance 1. what material the conductor is made of 2. area 3. temperature (less resistance if cooler) 4. length
What is the function of a radiographic unit? to convert electric energy into electromagnetic energy
Give 3 examples of other devices which change the form of energy Battery, drill, curling iron
Compare the charge of the electron to the charge of the proton. Have same magnitude but opposite signs.
Compare the move-ability of electrons and protons Protons are fixed in the nucleus, electrons can move from shell to shell of different atoms
Why does static electricity occur? Removal of electrons electrifies those substances
Give 2 examples of static electricity 1. walking on carpet and touching doorknob 2. combing dry hair
How many protons are there in the universe total protons in universe = total electrons in universe
What is the natural electrical state of all matter neutral
what causes a spark bringing a positively electrified object near a neutral object and some electrons may jump from neutral to positive one
what is the natural ground
how does grounding work
compare the initial charge to the end charge in induction electrification
what is the smallest unit of electric charge the electron
what is the fundamental measurement unit of charge coulomb
how many electric charges in 1 coulomb 1C=6x10618 electron charges
What is the electric field field that surrounds each electric charge
do uncharged particles have electric fields? no
what is the unit of force in coulombs law newtons
what is the unit of charge in coulombs law coulomb
How is the force of attraction/repulsion affected by increasing the magnitude of charge (in Coulombs law) more force attracting or repelling
How is the force of attraction/repulsion affected by increasing the magnitude of distance more force attracting or repelling
What is the relationship between force and distance in coulombs law indirect
what is the relationship between force and charge direct
What causes electric potential energy electric charges can do work when released
what is the unit of electric potential volt
what is a similar name of potential difference voltage
How does the size of potential relate to magnitude of voltage higher voltage, higher potential to do work
how does the size of voltage relate to the ability to do work higher voltage, higher potential to do work
what is the potential for normal household appliances 110 volts
define electricity electric charges in motion
what causes electrons to move the application of an electrical current along a conductor
what is current flow of electrons
differentiate between current and charge current is talking about how many are moving past a point, charge is how negative it is
what direction do electrons flow from negative charge to positive charge
what is the accepted direction of current flow going toward negative point
compare current direction to electron flow current goes toward negative, electron flow goes toward positive
give 3 examples of a conductor copper, water, metal
give 3 examples of insulators rubber, clay, glass
give 2 examples of semiconductors silicon and germanium
what happens to resistance as temperature increases it increases
what happens to resistance to electron flow when the wire diameter increases resistance decreases
what is the relationship between resistance and electron flow indirect
what is necessary to make electrons move electric potential energy
define amperage number of electrons flowing in the circuit; measures electrical current
symbol for amperage I
unit of electric potential volts
symbol for electric potential V
unit of resistance ohms
Symbol for resistance R
what happens to the flow of electrons if the resistance is high electrons are inhibited from flowing
what will happen is the voltage is constant and the amperage is increased the resistance decreases
define direct current current in which electrons flow in one direction along the conductor
define alteranting current current in which electrons oscillate back and forth
Created by: roberts-5691