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ISS 305

Fallacies

QuestionAnswer
Ad Hominem “Disprove the conclusion of a person’s argument by making a personal attack on the person”. I.e., . looks, character, behavior, associates/friends.o Barack Obama is Muslim, so there’s no way that his health care reform could be in the public’s interest.
Genetic “If we can find some reason why a person might have made the claim (its origin or genesis) other than its truth, we can dismiss the claim as false.” o Dennis Adams isn’t really a healer...
Appeal to Ignorance “P has never been proved true; therefore, P must be false.” Nobody has ever seen the real Easter Bunny; so, there’s no way it could exist
Appeal to (Questionable) Authority “A says that P is true; A is an expert on the subject, so P is true.” (Authorities are always right.) o My doctor says that there is no way that I have a cold, by his observation. So, I’m not going to cover my mouth when I sneeze.
Bandwagon “Everyone does it/believes it, so it must be ok/true.” Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol within a small timeframe can’t be a bad thing: all my friends do it!
Past Practice “This has been going on for a very long time, so it must be true/valid/useful.” The penny has been around for hundreds of years; it would be stupid and insulting to stop minting it.
Poisoning the Well “By putting your opponent in a position where nothing s/he has to say can be valid, you prove your own position.” (attacking that person’s credibility.)
False Dichotomy “Either A is true or B is true. A is not true; therefore B must be true.”
Two Wrongs Make a Right “Proving one’s own position is correct by finding fault in an opposing position.”
If I Feel It, It Must Be True “If some assertion/event/etc. makes us feel good, then it must be true/safe/good.” Bob has such a nice, calming demeanor. I think I’ll let him baby-sit my kids.
Begging the Question “A is true because A is true.” It’s clear that Dennis Adams is a healer because he can cure many diseases.
Equivocation “Using a single word or phrase with different meanings as if it only had one meaning.”
Irrelevant Thesis “A is true, therefore B is true (but A is irrelevant to B).” o If there was a Big Bang, a moment of creation, then of course there has to be a Creator.
Straw Man “Misrepresenting the position of someone to make it easy to refute.”
Loaded Question “A question with an embedded assumption, where agreement with the question indicates agreement with the assumption as well.”
Old News “We’ve always know that, so it’s not true or very interesting/important.” Old Man Rogers has been racist for the past 80 years. Why should we stop him now?
Composition Fallacy “A is true of the parts; thus, A is true of the whole.” That new guy from Boston is a violent jerk. I’m never going to Boston.
Division/Ecological Fallacy “A is true of the whole; thus, A is true of the parts.” Boston has been statistically shown to be full of violent jerks. I’m going to stay away from that new guy from Boston.
Naturalistic Fallacy “What is natural (or typical) is good/right.” Men are usually taller than women. Therefore, for a heterosexual relationship to be successful, the male should always be taller.
Appeal to Fear/Force “If you do not accept A as true, then something bad will happen to you. Therefore, A is true.” “I believe in Santa Claus, because I was told that nonbelievers (of Santa) will burn in hell.”
Skeptic Everything is uncertain, reject what the person is saying is true, philosophical model.
Skeptic A person who questions the validity of authenticity of something purporting the be factual.
skeptic A person who maintains a doubting attitude toward values, plans, and statements.
Fallacist's Fallacy Rejecting the person's argument because it is fallacisit, it could be true or false, however the argument is bad.
Fallacists Fallacy It is bad because it fails to provide good reasons to accept its conclusion.
Argument A basic unit of reasoning in which an assertion/claim, statements derived from one or more other assertion/arguments. It is composed of two or more statements.
Inductive logic Evidence is more specific, while the conclusion is more general.
Inductive logic "Most adult men that iv'e seen, at least in our culture wear beards. Therefore all adult men in our culture probably have beards."
Deductive Logic Are intended to prove conclusion support for their conclusion.
Valid deductive arguments Allow you to conclude that the conclusion is true if the premises are true. If premises are false, then if an arguments valid conclusion my not be true. Depends on how you put your argument, not whether on the evidence or conclusions is good.
(Valid Deductive argument) Affirming the antecedent If p then q p happens therefore q
Affirming the antecedent "If you smoke, then you'll get lung cancer John Smokes Therefore, John will eventually get lung cancer
(Valid Deductive Argument) Denying the Consequent If p then q Not q Therefore, not p
Denying the Consequent "if you ever smoke, then you'll eventually get lung cancer John neer got lung cancer Therefore, John didn't smoke"
Invalid deductive Argument Certain forms of arguments are accurate; even if the premises are true, the conclusion may not be true.
(invalid deductive argument) Affirming the consequent If p then q q is true therefore, p is true? "no" Conclusion can be true or false
Affirming the consequent of (invalid deductive argument) If you ever smoke, then you'll eventually get lung cancer John got lung cancer Therefore, John smoked"
(invalid deductive argument) Denying the antecedent If p then q not p Therefore, not q
Denying the antecedent (invalid deductive argument) If you ever smoke then you get lung cancer John never smokes Then you didn't get lung cancer"
Systematic or central (thoughtful) Evaluating evidence, taking time. Look for all relevant evidence, evaluate all evidence carefully, weigh all evidence to reach ones conclusion, Be a real skeptic (doubting question and suspend judgment)
Heuristic (quick and dirty) This way is sometimes bad or good. Settle for whatever evidence is handy, decide quickly and don't ever reconsider, use simple rules or shortcuts to evaluate the evidence and decide.
Inductive Fallacies Faulty analogy, Hasty Generalization, False cause
Faulty Analogy Things that resemble one another in certain respects must also resemble on another in other respects.
Hasty Generalization Draws more of a general conclusion
False Cause If A is associated with B, the A causes B
Common deductive fallacies Begging the question
Empirical Statements Purport to convey information about the world which we come to know through the experience of our senses.
Verification An empirical statement should tell us what sense experiences we should have if the statement is true.
To verify an empirical The words used in the statement have to have the same meaning about experience for everyone who wants to check. This will require an explicit (or implicit) definition of how one attaches experience to the words—i.e., an operational definition.
Falsificaiton Should tell us just what sense experiences we should have if the statements are false. It is not meaningful unless an empirical statement could be false. This is tested via observation.
Analytic (Semantic) statements Assert something about the meaning of words NOT about the observable world; they have no empirical meaning. They could be True or False.
True Analytic statements are called Tautologies A is A; Bachelors are unmarried men
Value Statement Express some positive or negative evaluation of something or someone.
Value statement maintains Pur value words, which judge rather than describe, and/or "mixed" words which both evaluate/judge and also describe.
Value Statement "Marry is sweet"
Attitude Statements Express how someone feels or thinks about something but little or nothing observable about that something. Cannot be validated or falsified through observation. NO particular observable events which make his/her statement true or false.
Attitude Statement "Love to watch basketball" I believe that "basketball is the most entertaining spectator sport"
Metaphysical Statements Asserts something that cannot, in principle, be observed.
Metaphysical statement "There is a God in heaven" "There is life after death"
Alternative methods of assessing empirical statements 1. Ignore the question/statement 2. Rely on chance; flipping a coin. 3. Rely on dogma; Authoritative belief, statement of ideas, oppinions 4. Rely on authority 5. Rely on common sense 6. Rely on Heuristics/rule of thumb 7. Rely on observations
Empiricisms Rely on sensory experiences or observations, must be falsifiable. Can not always know it is 100%.
Empiricism Hallucination, Dr. Death, Dr. James, Greg barefoot trial. Jury studies, baldness perspective- you cannot be 100% certain.
Publicness Science doesn't rely on observations by any one person at any one time. Science assumes if something occurs once it will occur again, if the conditions are the same. Peer Review: very well known carefully evaluated by other qualified trained scientists.
Systematic Observations Not all observations are equally relevant to an empirical statement, question. Recognize the risks in trusting anecdotal evidence (personal experience)
What Science is NOT Mathematics, statistics, laboratory, and lab equipment
Concepts of variables & Measurements Any attribute which can assume different values among the members of a class of subjects or events, but which has only one value for any given member of that class at any time. Numbers are usually better.
Concepts of variables & measurements examples: height, weight, eye color, attributes, IQ, aggression.
Levels of measurement Nominal- numbers as labels, no comparison just categories Ordinal- Numbers permitting ordering, 1st place etc. Interval- It can go below 0, Fahrenheit Ratio- Cannot go below 0, Kelvin
Random Error Sources of error which bounce randomly around the underlying "true" value of the variable.
Low Random error variables are not controlled, Has High reliability.
Systematic Error High validity, no zero. Error which distorts measurements constantly in a single direction from the underlying "true" value.
Examples of Systematic error SAT, if you get a lower SAT score than what your IQ score really is.
Reliability Is the consistency of a set of measurement often used to describe tests.
Validity A test measures what it claims to measure.
Establishing Reliability Temporal consistency, Inter judge agreement, internal consistency
Example of establishing reliability Test-retes correlation
Temporal Consistency if you measure the same people at two points in time, the greater the reliability the more similar the measurements should be.
Inter judge agreement two human judges are measuring the same thin, the greater the reliability of their judgements, the more similar their two measurements should be.
Internal consistency If a multi-item measure is reliable, the measures obtained with different itms ought to be similar "most common form"
Assessing Reliability Best- Look for direct empirical evidence, used in the project question. example; test-retest, internal consistency correlation, actual facts.
Assessing Reliability Next Best- Look for indirect evidence of measures. Example science journals
Assessing Reliability Least Best- "Face reliability" is there any obvious source of random error, likely to lead to random error.
Assessing Validity Least Best- "Face validity" validity by assertion or by authority. Making sure it is measuring what it is supposed to measure. It is Risky because you are putting your faith into one person.
Assessing Validity Next Best- Rational, but not-empirical, content validity; content of the measure is fair. Consensual validity; agreement among the experts that the measure is valid.
Assessing Validity Best- Empirical, criterion-related strategies. Concurrent validity; Predictive validity; and Convergent validity, Discriminat variability
Concurrent Validity Measure distinguished between groups known to differ on the variable.
Predictive validity Valid measure should predict future behavior that should be affected by the variables.
Convergent Validity Valid measure of a variable ought to produce similar scores with other wells validated measure.
Discimnant validity Valid measure of a variable ought to produce dissimilar scores with other well validated measures of different/ distinctive variables.
Importance of Triangulation Looking at the problem from different perspectives with different methods.
Nominal Fallacy Naming something doesn’t explain it
Consequence-Intentionality Fallacy: he effect does not prove an intent to produce that effect.
Conformation Bias: Tendency to look for evidence that would confirm what one believes to be true.
Reification error: Treating an abstract concept ( e.g., self esteem) as if it were a concrete or physical entity.
Fundamental Attribution Error: A tendency when explaining others’ behavior to pay too little attention to situational factors (e.g., the situation the person is in; what others are doing) and too much to internal factors (e.g., personality)
Hindsight bias: Tendency to overestimate how predictable something is after one learns that it has occurred.
Created by: 1248150307