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Skull Pathology

Pathology & Foreign Body

QuestionAnswer
What is the region under the Dura Mater that's bathed with CSF? The Subdural
What is the region above the Dura Mater? The Epidural
What may cause a bleed in the Epidural? Contusion or Concussion
What are the common fractures of the skull? Which of these is unique to the skull? Linear fracture, Comminuted fracture, Depressed fracture, Diastic fracture. Diastic fracture is unique to the skull & is a fracture right along the suture.
What will a Linear fracture appear as? What is the most common skull bone that receives this fracture? A linear fracture will appear as a straight dark line. The most common skull bone will be the Parietal.
What is a Comminuted fracture? A fracture that breaks into many pieces.
What is another name for a Depressed fracture? What type of injury is it most common from? What will it appear as radio-graphically? A Ping Pong fracture. Generally from a blunt trauma injury. A portion of the plate of bone may be depressed into the cancellous portion.
What will a Diastic fracture appear as radio-graphically? It may appear as a seperated suture.
What is Premature Synostosis? Which one is the most common? What will a babies head appear as with premature synostosis? Sutures in the skull and face that fuse too soon. The Sagittal suture is most common. A babies head may appear too small.
What is Dyostosis? What is another name for it? What may Dyostosis be related too? Defective bone formation. Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Can be related to vitamin deficiency.
What is Dysplasia? What may a newborn head appear as with Dysplasia? Abnormal molding. Coned head.
What is Dystrophy? What vitamin deficiency's is it caused by? Abnormal nutrition. Vitamin D (Scurvy) & Vitamin C deficiency.
What is Paget's Disease? What may it appear as radio-graphically? Chronic Inflammation of bone. An inconsistent appearance in bone that's thick in some places and osteoporotic in others.
What is Osteomyelitis? Inflammation of the bone marrow.
What is Mastoiditis? What is Mastoiditis treated with? What can develop from Mastoiditis? Inflammation of the Mastoid portion of the Temporal bone. Penicillin. Encephalitis.
What are Glia? Are they neural tissue? What percentage of brain neoplasms arise from Glia? Where is the most common Glia located? Connective tissue that's mingled throughout the brain. Glia are not neural tissue. 50% of brain neoplasm arise from Glia. The most common Glia is located in the Pons.
What is the term if the calcified Pineal gland appears more lateral than midline radio-graphically? Midline shift
Where is the Choroid Plexus located? What may an out of place Choroid Plexus signal? The Choroid Plexus is located in the 3rd ventricle; it appears across the level of the eyebrow. An out of place Choroid Plexus may signal a pathology.
What is the Falx Cerebri & where is it? What may an out place Falx Cerebri signal? The Falx Cerebri os the potyion of Dura Mater that dips down in between the right & left hemispheres. An out of place Falx Cerebri may signal a Midline Shift.
What is the region under the Dura Mater that's bathed with CSF? The Subdural
What is the region above the Dura Mater? The Epidural
What may cause a bleed in the Epidural? Contusion or Concussion
What are the common fractures of the skull? Which of these is unique to the skull? Linear fracture, Comminuted fracture, Depressed fracture, Diastic fracture. Diastic fracture is unique to the skull & is a fracture right along the suture.
What will a Linear fracture appear as? What is the most common skull bone that receives this fracture? A linear fracture will appear as a straight dark line. The most common skull bone will be the Parietal.
What is a Comminuted fracture? A fracture that breaks into many pieces.
What is another name for a Depressed fracture? What type of injury is it most common from? What will it appear as radio-graphically? A Ping Pong fracture. Generally from a blunt trauma injury. A portion of the plate of bone may be depressed into the cancellous portion.
What will a Diastic fracture appear as radio-graphically? It may appear as a seperated suture.
What is Premature Synostosis? Which one is the most common? What will a babies head appear as with premature synostosis? Sutures in the skull and face that fuse too soon. The Sagittal suture is most common. A babies head may appear too small.
What is Dyostosis? What is another name for it? What may Dyostosis be related too? Defective bone formation. Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Can be related to vitamin deficiency.
What is Dysplasia? What may a newborn head appear as with Dysplasia? Abnormal molding. Coned head.
What is Dystrophy? What vitamin deficiency's is it caused by? Abnormal nutrition. Vitamin D (Scurvy) & Vitamin C deficiency.
What is Paget's Disease? What may it appear as radio-graphically? Chronic Inflammation of bone. An inconsistent appearance in bone that's thick in some places and osteoporotic in others.
What is Osteomyelitis? Inflammation of the bone marrow.
What is Mastoiditis? What is Mastoiditis treated with? What can develop from Mastoiditis? Inflammation of the Mastoid portion of the Temporal bone. Penicillin. Encephalitis.
What are Glia? Are they neural tissue? What percentage of brain neoplasms arise from Glia? Where is the most common Glia located? Connective tissue that's mingled throughout the brain. Glia are not neural tissue. 50% of brain neoplasm arise from Glia. The most common Glia is located in the Pons.
What is the term if the calcified Pineal gland appears more lateral than midline radio-graphically? Midline shift
Where is the Choroid Plexus located? What may an out of place Choroid Plexus signal? The Choroid Plexus is located in the 3rd ventricle; it appears across the level of the eyebrow. An out of place Choroid Plexus may signal a pathology.
What is the Falx Cerebri & where is it? What may an out place Falx Cerebri signal? The Falx Cerebri os the potyion of Dura Mater that dips down in between the right & left hemispheres. An out of place Falx Cerebri may signal a Midline Shift.
What is Hydrocephalus? What will it do? What two types are there & what are they? Fluid on the brain. Too much CSF will produced will enlarge the ventricles. Mechanical may be a tumor causing overproduction, or Systemic.
What is a Meningocele, or Meningomyelocele? What may it be caused by? Part of the meninges that may protrude from Spina Bifida.
What are the 3 types of brain inflammation? What are they? Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. Myelitis is inflammation of the myelin sheath. Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges.
What is microcephaly? What may it be caused by? A small head. May be caused by premature synostosis.
What is a foreign body? What are the types of openings? Any alien object that has entered the body by any route. Puncture wound, or a natural opening.
What 2 imaging modalities are used to locate foreign bodies? Radiography & fluoroscopy.
What are the guidelines for using x-ray for finding a foreign body? Use a small focal spot, no compression, Constant SID, CR directed over the foreign body, mark the site of puncture with a BB.
What are the 4 types of foreign body localization methods for using plain IR radiography? Biplaning; images 90 degrees from each other. Oblique; separate overlapping structures. Tangential; CR skims between the foreign body & primary body part. Single Image Triangualtion; 2 exposures on a single IR that provides depth perception.
What are the types of foreign body localization methods for fluoroscopy? Parallax; imaged cast by 2 objects equidistant from fluoro screen. Right angle; when the body can be turned. Profunda method; Foreign body removed under fluoro. Foreign Body on chest; inspiration & expiration.
Created by: jamestkelley