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Myers 9 Chapter 11

Bell West / Motivation and Work

motivation a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
instinct a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughtout a species and is unlearned.
drive-reduction theory the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
homeostasis a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
incentive a positive or negative evironmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
hierarchy of needs Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
glucose the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level ie low, we feel hunger.
set point the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
basal metabolic rate the body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
anorexia nervosa an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
binge-eating disorder significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.
sexual response cycle the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
refractory period a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
sexual disorder a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
estrogen sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones. Both male and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the developmentof the male sex characteristics during puberty.
sexual orientation an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).
flow a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
industrial-organizational psychology the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
personnel psychology a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
organizational psychology a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
structured interviews interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.
achievement motivation a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard.
task leadership goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
social leadership group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
Created by: rkratina