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Myers 9 Chapter 9

Bell West / Thinking and Language

cognition the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
concept a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
prototype a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories
algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrast with the usually speedier-but also more error-prone-use of heuristics.
heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
insight a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
confirmation bias a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set.
mental set a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
functional fixedness the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
representativeness heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.
availability heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements.
belief perseverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
intuition an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.
language our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
phoneme in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word.
grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
babbling stage beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
one-word stage the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
two-word stage beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-"go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs.
aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
Broca's area control language expression-an area of the frontal lobe, uaually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Wernicke's area controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
linguistic determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
Created by: rkratina