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Myers 9 Chapter 7

Bell West / Learning

learning A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
associative learning Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its conquences (as in operant conditioning).
classical conditioning A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
behaviorism the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) butnot with (2).
unconditioned response In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response.
conditioned response In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
conditioned stimulus In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
acquisition In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulusbegins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
higher-order conditioning A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.
extinction The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
spontaneous recovery The reaapearance, after a pause. of an extinguished conditioned response.
generalization The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
discrimination In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
respondent behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
operant conditioning A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
operant behavior Behavior that operates on the enviroment, producing consequences.
law of effect Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfaavorable consequences become less likely.
operant chamber In operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as Skinner box) containing a bar or key that ananimal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
shaping An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
reinforcer in operant conditioning, any events that strengthens the behavior it follows.
positive reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli,such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
negative reinforcement Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimuli that, when removed after a response.
primary reinforcer An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
conditioned reinforcer A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.
continuous reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
partial (intermittent) reinforcement Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extincton than does continuous reinforcement.
fixed-ratio schedule In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
variable-ratio schedule In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response aftert an unpredictable number of responses.
fixed-interval schedule In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
variable-interval schedule In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
punishment An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
cognitive map A mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
latent learning Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
intrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
extrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
observational learning Learning by observing others.
modeling The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
prosocial behavior Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. the opposite of antisocial behavior.
Created by: rkratina