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Fluoroscopy Final

Review for Fluoroscopy final

If a fluoroscopic image is not bright enough for diagnostic purposes, will prolonged observation improve perception? No.
Is the size of the cells in tissue exposed known to be an influence of the biological effects of radiation? No
As the kVp is increased and mAs correspondingly decreases, what happens to the patient skin exposure? The patient skin exposure decreases.
What is the greatest contribution of unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient from the x-ray operator's failure to do? Collimate the x-ray beam to the area of clinical interest.
During Fluoroscopy, which of the following will produce the greatest amount of scattered radiation.... Tube housing, tabletop, patient, image intensifier? The patient
Must each physician's license for the healing arts be posted in areas where x-ray machines are utilized? No
Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) measures what aspect of image quality? Resolution
Is the dose received by an occupational worker for his/her own medical or dental diagnosis defined as an occupational dose according to the California Radiation Control Regulations? No
When a multifocus image intensifier tube is operated in magnification mode, what happens to the voltage applied to the electrostatic lenses? Greater voltage is applied to electrostatic lenses.
What is the major source of secondary radiation in radiography? The patient's body
What kind of barrier, if any must be in all walls, floors and cielings exposed to the useful (primary) beam? A Primary Barrier
What are two reasons why film badges are used by radiation workers? They are practical means of providing long term exposure records & they can measure the worker with reasonable accuracy.
What will moving the image intensifier away from the patient do in regards to patient dose in a fluoroscopy system equipped with ABS & the tube is fixed below the table? It will increase patient dose
Which of the following are features of fluoroscopic equipment designed to reduce radiation to the patient..... Collimation, protective lead curtain, dead-man's switch? Collimation & the Dead-man's switch.
If the exposure area is doubled by opening the collimator, what will happen in regards dose amount to patient & exposure to the operator? It will double the patient dose & double the exposure to the operator.
Which of the following is not considered a safety feature of a fluorscope..... grid ration of 16:1, dead-man switch, bucky slot cover, cumulative timer? A grid ratio of 16:1 is not considered a safety feature of a fluoroscope.
If the collimating cone/diaphragm of mobile fluroscope unit is removed while the unit is in operation, which of the following will occur..... An audible signal, red light glowing on control panel, production of x-rays prevented by interlock, nothing? The production of x-ray's will be prevented by an interlock if the collimating cone/diaphragm is removed while the unit is in operation.
If I am fluoroing a patient using 80 kVp, what should the intensity of the x-ray beam at the tabletop not exceed how many rad/minute for each mA of current....... 0.2 rad/min, 1.0 rad/min, 2.2 rad/min, 5.0 rad/min? 2.2 rads/minute should not be exceeded
The central portion of the output phosphor of the image intensifier possesses the greatest..... distortion, aberration, magnification, resolution? The central portion of the output phosphor possesses the greatest resolution.
When using fluoroscopy, which of the following is directly proportional to the exposure delivered to the patient.... kVp, mA, filter thickness, target to panel/tabletop distance? mA (Milliampere)
The dose rate at the tabletop during regular fluoroscopy cannot exceed how many rads/min? May not exceed 5 rads/minute
Is an automatic brightness control circuit required on a mobile fluoroscopic unit? No.
Is a device to to prevent operation at source to skin distance less then 12" required on a mobile fluoroscopic unit? Yes
Is a device to prevent operation when the x-ray beam is not intercepted by the primary beam required on a fluoroscopic unit? Yes
During a 2 minute (fluoro exposure time) routine UGI series, a typical x-ray exposure to the patient is how many Roentgen's? 5.0 Roentgen's
What unit does the film badge report express an individual's radiation dose equivalent in? rem
How long does the California Radiation Control regulations require that individual radiation monitoring records be preserved by the employer after termination of employment of a technologist or technician? Indefinitely
What does Flux Gain define? How many light photons are produced by each electron
Does light in the fluorscopy room influence the tabletop exposure rate? Does filtration? Does kVp? Does target to panel distance? No. Yes. Yes. Yes.
A protective curtain should be interposed between the operator & the patient because scattered radiation exposure at 1 foot from the patient can be as high as how many mR/hour? 500 mR/hour
What type of exposure switch is the one that stops when the pressure on it is released? Must a fluoroscopy machine this type of switch? A dead-man's switch. Yes.
How many mm lead equivalent is required for protective aprons used during fluoroscopy according to California Radiation Control Regulations? 0.25 mm lead equivalent
Which of the following would cause greatest skin dose to the patient..... Short SID, Long SID, Small Focal Spot, Highest practical kVp? Short SID would cause the greatest skin dose to the patient.
What is the normal viewing distance for an image? 12"-15"
If the x-ray tube is moved rapidly during a fluroscopic exam, the image will blur. Which of the following is this a result of.... too low kVp, too low mA, camera tube lag, quantum mottle? Camera tube lag
What is the function of an Automatic Brightness Control Mechanism of an image intensified fluoroscope? To maintain a fixed dose rate to the image intensifier
What does the equation (normal mode size) squared/(magnification mode size)squared represent? Increase in patient dose in magnification mode
What is the correct position to wear a film badge during fluoroscopy? Above the apron at the collar level
If 1 rad = 100 ergs/gram, what is the dose if 3 grams of tissue absorbs 300 ergs of x-ray? 3 rad.
Is a continuous audible signal required during boost mode fluroscopy? Yes
Is continuous manual activation required for boost mode fluroscopy? Yes
Is the tube current and potential increased above normal limits? Yes
Which of the following film sizes utilized by the spot filming camera result in the greatest dose to the patient..... 35mm, 70mm, 90 mm, 105mm? 105 mm
What is the technique called that's used to prevent the flicker effect during the viewing of the TV image? Interlaced scanning
Which of the following methods of gonadal shielding is best for use during fluoroscopy..... shaped contact shielding, shadow shielding, flat contact shielding? Shaped, contract shielding.
The source to skin distance for image intensification should not be less than how many inches of the following...... 5", 15", 18", 40"? Should not be less than 18"
What is a typical setting for mA of the following for spot filming..... 2, 5, 10, 150? 150 mA
California State Fluroscopy Syllabus requires that kVp (tube potential) and mA (current)be monitored how often? Daily
For mobile C-arm fluoroscopic equipment, inherent provisions must ensure a minimum source source to skin distance of how many inches? 12 inches
The California Radiation Control regulations require that the minimum lead equivalence of gonadal shielding must be what? 0.5 mm lead equivalent
What is Vignetting? A decrease in light intensity at the periphery of an image.
What is the maximum exposure a pregnant occupational worker may receive during a 9 month gestational period? 500 mrem
What units are used to measure resolving power? line pairs/mm
Which of the following characteristic describe contrast media.... Solid form, high atomic number, low atomic number, low toxicity? High atomic number and low toxicity
Which of the following are disadvantages of using a flat piece of lead for gonadal shielding..... Cannot be used for erect views, difficult to keep in place, is not very useful for fluoroscopy? All of them
What is the purpose of synchronization in CINE? To operate the camera shutters at the same frequency as x-ray pulses and thus decrease patient dose.
The recognition of integration time of the human eye is the time it takes for recognition of an image. How long is this time? 0.2 seconds
During fluoroscopy, which of the following is an acceptable position for the technologist to stand... In the room next to the patient, in the room next to the radiologist, in the room as far from the patient as practical, holding the patient? In the room as far from the patient as practical.
Which of the following factors result in a brighter image being produced at the output phosphor of an II.... The type of camera, tungsten filament (cathode), flux gain, minification gain? Flux Gain & Minification gain are factors that result in a brighter image being produced at the output phosphor.
Which of the follwing is the best description of a virtual image.... image created by actual intersection of light rays, image on cine film, image seen on the monitor, image that cannot be seen an exists only for computational purposes? The image seen on the monitor
When switching from a 15" to 19" TV screen does the number of horizontal lines change? No
Which of the following describes a closed circuit TV system..... broadcast through air waves, has all its signals carried through cables, has all its circuits on one line, produces no signal at all? A closed circuit TV system has all its signals carried through cables.
The rods of the eye are principally used for what type of vision? Dim light vision, or scotopic vision.
When does electronic intensification occur in the II? When the electrons are moved at high speed from the photocathode to the output phosphor.
A technologist will receive most of the occupational exposure from which types of the following radiation.... Primary, Scattered, Exit, Gamma? A technologist will receive most of their occupational exposure from scattered radiation
California Radiation Control Regulations require the total filtration permanently fixed in the useful beam for fluoroscopy may not be less than what Al equivalent? May not be less that 2.5 mm Al equivalent.
The intensity of the x-ray beam at the tabletop during fluroscopy should not exceed how many Roentgen's/minute for each mA of operating tube current at 80 kVp? 2.2 Roentgen/minute
The mA setting for fluroscopy is typically less than what? 5 mA
What is the predetermined time limit that must not be exceeded for the cumulative manual reset timer? 5 minutes
Fluoro equipment manufactured after 8/1/74 equipped with AEC shall not operate at any combo of kVp and mA which will result in an exposure rate at the point where the center of the useful x-ray beam enters the patient in excess of....? 10 rad/minute
Fluoro equipment manufactured after 8/1/74 equipped with AEC and using boost mode shall not operate at any combo of kVp and mA which will result in an exposure rate at the point where the center of the useful x-ray beam enters the patient in excess of..? 5 rad/minute
Which of the following will terminate fluroscopy after a preset period of time.... phototimer, cumulative timer, cumulative dose timer, fluorescent timer? Cumulative timer
Genetic dose refers to what? The effects exhibited in future offspring of persons who have been irradiated.
What is the most conservative type of dose effect curve and also the curve upon which radiation protection guides and regulatory requirements are based is what? Linear Non Threshold Curve
Radiosensitivity of tissues depends on which of the following..... degree of mitotic activity, number of undifferentiated cells, length of time cells of tissue are in active proliferation, size of cells? The degree of mitotic activity, number of undifferentiated cells, length of time cells of tissue are in active proliferation
How many rads of acute x-radiation in diagnostic energy range to the eyes will result in the formation of cataracts? Several hundred rads
Which of the following is a disadvantage of a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)...... Recharging is necessary, range of measurement is limited, not reusable, no permanent record is provided? No permanent record is provided since dose is cancelled when TLD is read
X-ray photons during fluoro are primarily absorbed by which of the following... primary barrier, the patient, air, image intensifier? The patient
Source to tabletop distance in fluoroscopy shall not be less than how many inches? 12 inches
Which of the following may perform fluro if they possess a valid up to date certificate issued by the State... certified RT, limited permit technician, student of RT, licentiate of the healing arts (physician)? Certified RT and a physician
When misdirected light photons reach the output phosphor, image density increases or decreases & image contrast increases or decreases? When misdirected light photons reach the output phosphor, image density INCREASES & image contrast DECREASES.
Why does the lag or blurring occur when utilizing a vidicon camera? It takes a certain amount of time for the image to build up and decay on the vidicon target.
What is the minimum lead equivalent that the opening for the bucky tray must be covered by? 0.25 mm lead equivalent
What term is a recommendation that is required to meet accepted standards? Shall
What term is a recommendation that is to be applied when practical? Should
Which of the following do not effect patient exposure... 3 phase generators, collimation, target to panel distance, exposure time? 3 phase generators
A high radiation area is any area accessible by individuals in which there exists any radiation an individual could receive in any 1 hour a dose to the whole body in excess of how many rem? 0.1 rem
A radiation area is any area accessible to personnel in which there exists radiation at such levels that a major portion of the body could receive in any 1 hour a dose in excess of how many rem? 0.005 rem
A controlled area is what? An area in which radiation safety rules are enforced.
Which of the following is record keeping not required for... results for each calibration survey & test, each reciept transfer & disposal of an x-ray machine, each RT who is hired by the hospital, radiation exposure monitoring of required individuals. Each RT who is hired by the hospital is not required by the California Radiation Control Regulations record keeping.
The rad is a unit of what? Absorbed dose
The preferred fluoro technique utilizes what in regards to kVp & mA? high kVp, low mAs
the rem is a unit if what? radiation equivalent man
The SI unit analogous to the rad is what? The Gray
The SI unit analagous to the rem is what? The Seivert
When electrons strike the target of an x-ray tube most of the energy is converted to what? Heat
The HVL is what? The thickness of a specified substance which reduces the exposure rate of the primary beam by one half
What is Vignetting? A fall off in brightness at the periphery of an image intensifier.
What is the approximate exposure in rads a patient would receive during 5 minutes of fluoroscopy. 10-30 rads
A protective drape, or sliding panel of a minimum thickness of what lead equivalent should be positioned between fluoroscopist and patient to absorb scattered radiation? 0.25 mm of lead
Should film badges be wirn under the lead apron at gonadal level? No
If an occupational worker receives an exposure of 5 rems to the skin of the whole body must the State of California be notified? No
Which of the following types of cells is most sensitive to the effects of radiation..... Muscle, brain, red bone marrow, skin? Red bone marrow
Which of the following has been called an occupational related disease of radiologists... liver cancer, leukemia, tuberculosis, lymphoma? Leukemia
Visual acuity is the ability to do what? To perceive fine detail
What is a grainy appearance in an image caused by statistical fluctuation of absorbed x-ray photons? Quantum mottle
What is the brightness ratio between two adjacent areas of a fluroscopy image? Image contrast
Automatic Brightness Stabilization is designed to compensate for changes in what? Tissue density
Fluoroscopy normally requires a tube current in what mA range? 1-5 mA
If a protective apron of 0.25 mm of lead is worn, what is the typical exposure reduction? 97%
Which of the following is the best protective eyewear for the operator to utilize during fluoroscopy... polaroid glasses, lead glass contact lenses, eyeglasses, lead glass protective goggles and glasses? Lead glass protective goggles and glasses.
What is the largest source of unnecessary radiation exposure of the patient? Improper collimation
Which of the following are tru about fluoroscopic imaging.. increase kVp increases contrast, increase mA reduces patient dose, reducing kVp increases patient dose, reducing mA increases contrast? Reducing kVp increases patient dose
A strong correlation exists between the incidence of leukemia and the mean radiation dose received by which.... gonads, thyroid, bone marrow, skin? Bone marrow
Stray x-radiation comes from the x-ray tube housing is called what? Leakage radiation
Which of the following is not a personnel monitoring device.... Geiger counters, pocket chamber or dosimeter, TLD, film badge? Geiger counter
The most common material used in TLD is which of the following.... Calcium Fluoride, Potassium Fluoridentrous Oxide, Lithium Fluoride, Nitrous Oxide? Lithium Fluoride
Which of the following is the input phosphor of modern II made of..... Zinc Cadmium Sulfide, Sodium Iodide, Cesium Iodide, Calcium Tungstate? Cesium Iodide
What are the 3 basic principles which may be used singly, or in combination to reduce dose to x-ray? Time, Distance, Shielding
Utilizing the inverse square law, if distance is doubled from source of radiation, the exposure will be reduced to what fraction of the original dose? 1/4
Diagnostic type tube housing means that when tube is operated leakage radiation at a distance of 1 meter from the target cannot exceed how many mrad? 100 mrad
For both fluoroscopic and radiographic mobile equipment, provisions must be made so that equipment may not be operated at less than what source to skin distance? May not be operated at less than 12" (30cm) source to skin distance
The resolution of the modern input phosphor of an II in non magnification mode is what lp/mm? 4 line pair/mm
The output phosphor of most modern II is made of which of the following..... Zinc Cadmium Sulfide, Cesium Iodide, Sodium Iodide, Calcium Tungstate? Zinc Cadmium Sulfide
To keep the light output of the II constant, ABS compromises between which.. patient dose & image quality, contrast & resolution, Vignetting & pincushion distortion, mag mode & non mag mode? Patient dose & image quality
Which of the following component of the I tube is responsible for focusing the electron field... Input phosphor, photocathode, electrostatic lenses, glass envelope? The electrostatic lenses are responsible for focusing the electron field.
The overall ability of an II to increase image illumination is called what? Brightness Gain
The ratio between a TV monitors vertical resolution & total number of scan lines is called what? The Kell Factor
What is the number of horizontal lines on a TV monitor? 525
Which of the following is the ultimate limitation of image quality from an II..... vignetting, tube lag, pincushion distortion, the number of x-ray photons absorbed by the system? The number of x-ray photons absorbed by the system
Which of the following recording systems has the poorest resolution.... CONE, VHS, Spot Filming, Videodisc Recording? VHS recording system has the poorest resolution
High film badge readings are caused by which... Improper storage of film badge, Inaccurate processing when film is read by badge company, heat exposure, poor radiation practices by worker? Poor radiation practices by the occupational worker.
Created by: jamestkelley
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