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social psych- RIC

exam 1

social psychology the scientific field that examines how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.
social cognition broad set of mental processes dealing with how we come to know about and understand the social world (people and events)
emblems hand gestures
illustrators accompany spoken word, clarify
regulators guide, control, direct interaction
Universal patterns for happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust (Facial affect program)
Display rules personal, cultural rules that determine when and to what degree and emotion may be shown
Active not a carbon copy of external world
Selective we don’t and can’t pay attention to all the available information
Organized perceivers put into together in systematic ways
Categorization process different things are more or less equivalent 1. Basic process 2. Necessary for functioning in complex world 3. Categories derive in part from cultural experience 4. May also be source of errors, misunderstandings, and prejudice
schemas mental frameworks centering on a specific theme that help us to organize social information
Confirmatory bias Affects what we notice and what we look for
“carry-over effect” (priming) Schemata activated in one situation may continue to affect perception in a new situation (Srull and Wyer)
Self-fulfilling prophecy the perceivers expectations turn out to be exactly what they turned out to be.
behavioral confirmation Perceivers schema thus receives confirmation (Rosenthal, Snyder (belief becomes reality)
Attribution Processes by which people make judgments about the causes of behaviors
Consensus compares actor to other people in the same situation
Distinctiveness actor reacts in some manner in other similar situations
Consistency compare actor to themselves in the same situation over different occasions.
Circumstance attributions both actor and situation
Fundamental error we tend to overestimate the dispositional causes of others’ behavior, and to underestimate situational causes.
The Self Arises from and is maintained by social processes
Situational factors 1. Context affects appearance and behavior 2. Context affects different self-schemata 3. Distinctiveness principle (McGuire)
Role taking look at oneself from the point of view of another
Generalized other final understanding of the social code
what makes it social psych? Scientific field, thoughts/feelings/behaviors, individuals
different types of presence 1. Real- face to face 2. Imagined- imagine what people will say/ask 3. Implied- not physically present, something about environment suggests human presence
Social Psychological Perspective Focus on psychological processes common to people in their social interactions, Focus on situational explanations, social psychological topics
3 limitations of common sense 1. Taken for granted 2. Often contradictory and imprecise 3. Limited explanatory power
Improving on common sense scientific method based on systematic research
Perceiver person making judgment
Target keep the same
Context influences (Physical environment, social environment, culture)
Target factor the “raw material” for our impressions (physical attractiveness)
DOWNS and LYONS Nonverbal behaviors- everything we do that’s not a contact of speech
Accuracy in perceiving emotions 1. Strong emotions 2. Shared display rules 3. Situational information 4. Cultural and individual differences in facial expressions 5. Individual differences in sensitivity to nonverbal cues
Perceiver factors Person perception is active, selective, and organized
Loftus “weapons effect”; affects what we take in; situations activate different schemata
Mac Arthur Affects judgments of social influence; when people are salient, they are seen as more influential in social interaction
Taylor Affects judgments of behavior intensity; when people are salient, their behavior is seen as more extreme than when they are not salient
Context and target factors 1. Salience (novel, unusual, emotionally) 2. Charged stimuli are salient
once schemas are formed... ...they exert powerful effects on what we notice (attention), enter into memory (encoding), and later remember (retrieval)
Darley and Gross Affect our interpretation of behavior and events
*memory is reconstructive* better memory for schema-relevant information (highly consistent of inconsistent)
When are schemata most likely to operate? Outcome dependency (Low outcome dependency, low need for accuracy, accountability, high time pressure
When do we use attribution? 1. When asked 2. For unexpected events 3. For unpleasant events 4. High outcome dependency 5. Following failure or loss of control
How do we use attribution? Rational models of attribution (actor or situation)
Created by: melissa_xo19