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Patient Data 2

Electrolytes

QuestionAnswer
What are the 7 Major electrolytes? SODIUM, CHLORIDE, POTASSIUM, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, Bicarbonate AND PHOSPHATE
What is the normal blood serum range for sodium? 135-145 mEq/L
What is Hyponatremia? Low Sodium
What are the causes of Hyponatremia? GI loss, sweating, fever, diuretics, ascities, CHF, Kidney Failure
What are the symptoms of Hyponatremia? weakness, apathy, headache, tachycardia and hypotension
What is Hypernatremia? High Sodium
What are the causes of Hypernatremia? Net sodium Gain, Net Water loss, increased aldosterone, steroid therapy (theopholine, prednisone)
What are the symptoms of Hypernatremia? tremors, irritability, ataxia, confusion, seizures, coma
What Fluids can electrolytes be found? Blood Urine and saliva
What is the Normal blood serum level for Chloride? 98-106
Where is chloride present? Red and white blood cells, GI mucosa and sweat
What is Hypochloremia? What are the causes? Low chloride. GI loss and Diuretics
What are the symptoms of hypochloremia? Metabolic alkalosis, muscle spasm,and coma
What is Hyperchloremia? What are the causes? High Chloride. Dehydration, metaboloic acidosis
what are the symptoms of Hyperchloremia? minimal
What is the normal blood serum level of Potasium? 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
what is hypokalemia? what are the causes? Low potassium. Dieretics, steroid therapy, renal disease, vomiting/ diarrhea, malnutrition, trauma, albuterol
what are the symptoms of hypokalemia? Muscle weakness, paraltsis, ECG changes, circulatory failure, cardiac arrest
what is Hyperkalemia? What are the causes? High potassium. chronic renal disease, hemorage, tissue necrosis, nonsteroidal, antiinflamitory drugs, ace inhibitors, potassium sparing dieuretics
what are the symptoms of hyperkalemia? ECG changes, Ventricular arrhhthmias, cardiac arrest
where is calcium stored? bones
what are the normal levels in blood for calcium? 9.0-10.5 mg/L or 4.5-5.25 mEq/L
what is hypocalcemia and what are the causes? Low calcium. hyperparathyroidism, pancereatitis, renal failure, trauma
what are the symptoms of hypocalcemia? hyperactive tendon reflexes, muscle twitching, abdominal cramps, ECG changes, convulsions
what is hypercalcemia and what are the causes? High calcium. hyperthyroidism, bone cancer, sarcoidosis
What are the symptoms of hypercalcemia? fatigue, depression, muscle weakness, nausea/ vomitting/constipation
what is the normal blood level for Magnesium? 1.3-2.1 mEq/L
what is hypomagnesmia and what are thae causes? Low magnesium. Inadequite intake/ impared absorption, alcholism, panceatitis
what are the symptoms of hypomagnesmia? muscle weakness, irritability, ECG changes, delirium, convulsions
what is hypermagnesemia and what are the causes? High magnesium. Dehydration, renal INSUF. Tissue trauma
What are the symptoms? ECG changes, Cardiac and Respiratory muscle paralysis.
where in the body is Phosphorus found? Bones, teeth and muscle tissue
what is the normal blood level for phosphorus? 1.2-2.3 mEq/L
what is hypophosphatemia and what causes it? Low PO4. starvation, malabsorption, thyroid disorders, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
what are the symptoms? weakness,
What is hyperphosphatemia and what are the causes of it? High PO4. endocrine disorders, chronic renal INUF.
what are the symptoms? minimal
what does Bicarbonate play a role in? Acid base balance (ABG)
what is the normal level in blood for HCO3? 22.26 mEq/L
where is HCO3 higher? In venous blood
Created by: latoswats