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Abnormal- Chapter 5

Anxiety disorders

4 ways to describe anxiety negative effect, somatic symptoms of tension, apprehension of upcoming events (out of our control, future-oriented
Anxiety is helpful and normal when _______. experienced in small amounts
Anxiety becomes problematic when _______. it is experienced in excessive amounts and interfaces with daily functioning
An immediate reaction to current danger characterized by _________. a strong escapist action
Fear activates the ________ branch of the _______ nervous system. sympathetic, autonomic
3 Characteristics of anxiety disorders pervasive and persistent symptoms of anxiety, excessive avoidance and escape tendencies, causes clinically significant distress and impairment in functioning
What is a panic attack? abrupt experience of intense discomfort or fear
Physical symptoms of a panic attack heart palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness
What are 3 types of panic attacks? situationally bound, unexpected, and situationally predisposed panic attack
When is a situationally bound (cued) panic attack expected? specific situations
Unexpected panic attacks are __________. are unanticipated and occur without warning.
Unexpected panic attacks are common in people suffering from what? panic disorder
Biological contributions to anxiety runs in families, depleted levels in the GABA and serotonergic systems
Area of brain most associated with anxiety is _________. the limbic system
Psychological contributions to anxiety (Freud) Anxiety involves reactivation of an infantile fear situation`
Psychological contributions to anxiety (behaviorists' views) Classical and operant conditioning and modeling
Psychological contributions to anxiety (psychological views) Early experiences with uncontrollability / unpredictability
Psychological contributions to anxiety (social contributions) Stressful life events trigger vulnerabilities
True or false: Comorbidity is common across the anxiety disorders. True
About _________ of patients have two or more secondary diagnoses. half
What is the most common secondary diagnosis? depression
_______ and _______ are closely related. Anxiety and depression
What is GAD? Generalized Anxiety Disorder
People with GAD typically worry about __________. minor daily life events
Children with GAD worry about: academics,athletics, social competence, physical injury
What is the DSM-IV-TR Criteria for GAD? Excessive worry (difficult to turn off or control), must be ongoing more days than not, persists for a period of more than 6 months, physical symptoms include muscle tension, fatigue, irritability, difficulty sleeping and focusing attention
GAD affects about ___ of the population. 4%
2/3 of people who are affected by GAD are ______. female
Onset often begins in early _________ and often progresses more ________ compared to other anxiety disorders. adulthood, gradually
True or False: GAD may be genetic True but what is inherited is a tendency to be anxious , not GAD itself.
Treatments for generalized anxiety disorder Benzodiazepines, Psychological intereventions/cognitive-behavioral therapies
panic disorder with or without agoraphobia experience of unexpected panic attack, worrying about another panic attack, symptoms persist for 1 month or more
What is agoraphobia? A fear that is characterized by avoiding situations or enduring them with marked distress
What do people with agoraphobia fear? They fear and avoid "unsafe" situations where a panic attack may occur
They find it _____ to escape to a safe place. hard
What is some ways people cope with having unexpected panic attacks? agoraphobia, drugs and alcohol
True or false: Many people who experience panic attacks do not develop panic disorder true
True or false: Many people experience anxiety and panic without developing agoraphobia. true
Panic disorders affect _____ percent of the population. 3.5%
____ of people who have panic disorders are _______. Two thirds, women
Women may report fears while men _______________. "tough it out" or use alcohol
True or false: Onset for panic disorder is acute. yes, usually beginning around ages 25-29
Panic disorder is ______ in children. rare
Treatments for panic disorder medications targeting serotonergic, noradrenergic, and GABA systems, and SSRIs(e.g., Prozac and Paxil)
Approximately, _____% of people on medication are free of panic as long as they stay on the medication. 60
___% of people relapse after stopping tricyclic antidepressants ___% relapse when stopping benzodiazepine 20, 90
Psychological treatment for panic disorder Cognitive-behavior therapies are highly effective and have the best long-term outcome
Features of specific phobias Extreme and irrational fear of a specific object or situation, Interferes with one's ability to function, Recognize fears are unreasonable, Still go to great lengths to avoid phobic objects
Phobias affect about ___% of the general population and __________ are overrepresented. 11, females
Are phobias acute or chronic? chronic
Between what ages do phobias begin? ages 15-20
blood-injury-infection phobia response to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection
situational phobia planes, trains, elevators
natural environment phobia events occurring in nature (heights, storms, water)
animal phobia fear of animals and insects
causes of phobias Biological vulnerability, direct conditioning, observational learning
Psychological Treatments of Specific Phobias Cognitive-behavior therapies are highly effective
What are the most common phobias? heights and snakes
Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) unrealistic and persistent worry that something terrible will happen to one's parents or oneself and the child may refuse to attend school or sleep alone because of separation from parents.
School phobia fear is specific to the school and the child can leave parents to go somewhere other than school
Features of social phobia Extreme and irrational fear/shyness, Focused on social and/or performance situations, Markedly interferes with one's ability to function, May avoid social situations or endure them with distress
People who have a social phobia have a fear of: humiliation and embarassment
Most common types of performance phobias Public speaking, Eating in a restaurant, Using a public restroom
Social phobias affect ___% of the general population 13
True or false: Social phobia is the most prevalent psychological disorder true
True or false: Slightly more females than males have social phobia true (1.4 to 1.0)
onset of social phobia takes place during: adolescence
Causes of social phobias Biological, Direct conditioning, observational learning
Meds for social phobias Tricyclic antidepressants, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, SSRI – Paxil
Relapse rates are _____ for people who go off medications for their social phobia. high
Psychological treatments for social phobias Cognitive-behavioral treatment – Exposure, role-play in a group setting (treatment highly effective)
Features of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Exposure to a traumatic event, Person experiences extreme fear/helplessness/horror, Re-experience the event, Avoidance of reminders of trauma, Emotional numbing, Interpersonal problems are common, interferes with ability to function, Difficulty sleeping
How much of the general population does PTSD affect? 7.8%
Most common traumas that cause PTSD Sexual assault, Accidents, Combat
What are some subtypes of PTSD? Acute PTSD, Chronic PTSD, Acute Stress Disorder
Acute PTSD May be diagnosed 1-3 months post trauma
Chronic PTSD Diagnosed after 3 months post trauma
Acute stress disorder diagnosis of PTSD immeadiately post trauma (40% go on to develop PTSD)
Causes for PTSD Intensity of the trauma and one’s reaction to it, Uncontrollability and unpredictability Extent of social support, or lack thereof post-trauma, Direct conditioning and observational learning
Psychological PTSD treatment Increase positive coping skills and social support, Cognitive-behavior therapies are highly effective
Obsessions Intrusive and nonsensical thoughts, images, or urges that one tries to resist or eliminate
Compulsions can be behavioral (hand washing, checking) or mental (e.g., counting, praying), Most people display multiple obsessions (cleaning, washing, and/or checking rituals)
What percent of the population does OCD affect? 2.6%
Most people with OCD are _________ females
OCD tends to be _______ chronic
Onset for OCD is typically in ________________ early adolescence or adulthood
Medical Treatments for OCD Clomipramine and other SSRIs – Benefit about 60% (relapse is common when meds are discontinued)
Psychological treatments for OCD Cognitive-behavioral therapy – Most effective for OCD
Created by: Ellemkay