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Cell anatomy/biology

QuestionAnswer
2 types of cell division mitosis and meiosis
What are the 2 descrete processes of mitosis? diving the nucleus, and dividing the cytoplasm
How many chromosomes does the parent cell contain? 46
how many chromosomes does the daughter cell contain in mitosis 23
how many daughter cells are created in mitosis 2
What is the segment of the cell cycle called when the cell is not dividing? interphase
What are teh subdivision of interphase? G1, S, G2
What happens in the G1 phase gap/growth. resting phase, cells are preforming functions to maintain homeostasis.
During what phase is DnA replicated s-phase (synthesis)
What happens after DNA is replicated? centrosomes divide adn chromosomes move to the opposite sides
What happens after DNA is replicated? centrosomes divide adn chromosomes move to the opposite sides
What happens after DNA is replicated? centrosomes divide adn chromosomes move to the opposite sides
What happens after DNA is replicated? centrosomes divide adn chromosomes move to the opposite sides
When is the most radiosensitive part of the cell cycle? early s-phase?
When is the most radiosensitive part of the cell cycle? early s-phase?
When is the most radiosensitive part of the cell cycle? early s-phase?
When is the most radiosensitive part of the cell cycle? early s-phase?
When is the most radioresistent phase of the cell? late s-phase
When is the most radioresistent phase of the cell? late s-phase
Describe the chromosomes after the s-phase of the cell chromosomes have identical DNA based sequence made by DNA replication
Describe the chromosomes after the s-phase of the cell chromosomes have identical DNA based sequence made by DNA replication
What happens to a chromatis upon completion of cell division? Chromotids?
What happens to a chromatis upon completion of cell division? Chromotids?
Name the 4 stages of mitosis in order Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telaphase
Name the 4 stages of mitosis in order Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telaphase
Describe what happens in Prophase Chromosomes inslude 2 chromotids connext to a centromere, The centroiles migrate toward opposite poles of the cell, producing spindle fibers the extend across the cell
Describe what happens in Prophase Chromosomes inslude 2 chromotids connext to a centromere, The centroiles migrate toward opposite poles of the cell, producing spindle fibers the extend across the cell
Name the 4 stages of mitosis in order Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telaphase
Name the 4 stages of mitosis in order Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telaphase
Describe what happens in Prophase Chromosomes inslude 2 chromotids connext to a centromere, The centroiles migrate toward opposite poles of the cell, producing spindle fibers the extend across the cell s equator. the nuclear membrane begins to disappear, the nucleolus is no longer visabl
Describe what happens in Prophase Chromosomes inslude 2 chromotids connext to a centromere, The centroiles migrate toward opposite poles of the cell, producing spindle fibers the extend across the cell s equator. the nuclear membrane begins to disappear, the nucleolus is no longer visabl
What happens during metaphase pair of chromosomes are lined up at the equator of teh cell. Spindle fibers fromeach centroile attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes. the nuclear membrane has entirely disappeared, adn the centromere now divide.
What happens during Anaphase the centrosomes divide, adn the sister chromatids detach as tehy are pulled to an opposite pole. each chromotis is reguarded as a separate chromosome as there are 2 complete and distinct sets
What happens during telophase the set of chromosomes become much longer, thinner, and indistinct as tehy reach teh poles of the cell. The DNA unravel to form chromatin. There is formatin of new nulcear membranes. the nucleolus reappears
What type of cells undergo meiosis? gonads
how many chromosomes do ova and sperm have? 23
Why mucst germ cells undergo meiosis rather than mitosis reduce the # of chromosomes
During meiosis the cell divides _______ in succession, but the chromosomes are duplicated only _______. 2,1
T/F in both germ and somatic cells, DNA synthesis take place during the interphase, resulting in the duplication of each chromosome constructing 2 chromotids true
The names,stages and movement of germ cell chromosomes during meiosis are similar to comatic cell chromosomes untilm the completion of wht stage of the cell cycle? telophase
What happens after telophase in meiosis that is different than mtiosis? cell goes throguht a second division of cellular material w/o DNA replication or duplication of chromosome
Describe how cells ensure that each new cell produced recieves all od the genetic material necessary to survive and reproduce Copies DNA unwind DNA, separate 2 strands , build new strands
What can happen if DNA is not replicated accurately? cell death/ big problems
What is protoplasm? organic/inorganis compound. Dissolved or suspended in water
what percent of protoplasm is Water? 55-75%
What percent of protoplasm is protein? 15%
What percent of protoplasm is lipids 2%
What percent of protoplasm is carbohydtaes 1%
What are organic compounds and list 4 of them. Carbon, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids. Amino acids are the building blocks, enzymes act as catalyst
What are inorganic compounds and give 2 examples mineral cells: essential of cell life sodium: kepps cell from bursting postassium: prevents cell from collapsing
What do proteins do? assist in growth , constructing new tissue, repair injured or worn-out tissues
What do lipids do? store energy, insulate from cold, assist with digestion and lubricate joints
what are Carbohydrates? they are the major source of cell energy
What are nucleic acids? carry the genetic information crutial to the replication of cells and manufacturing of cellular proteins
What are amino acids buildig blocks of protein
Whar are enzymes? act as catalyst,c orntol every cell process, help make new parts, provide energy
describe the make-up of nucleic acids DNA, RNA
Purines are either _______or________ adenine or guanine
Pyrimidines are either ________or______ cystosine or thymine
What are teh 2 nucleic acids? DNA, RNA
What is the function of inorganic compounds (mineral salts) in the cell? Keep cells functining correctly, assist in producing energy, assis in conducting nerve impulses
What is the fucntion of the cell membrane and what is it made of? separate cell interior from exterior?
what is cytoplasm, wht is the function of cytoplasm adn wht is it made out of? Watery solution between nucleus and cell membrane. Chemical reactions take place (protein synthesis and cellular repiration. Metobolic activity (anabolism, canabolism)
Name 6 organelles and state where they are located Located in the cytoplasm, help keep cell functions. ER, mitochondira, golgi apperatus, lysosome, nucleus, centrosomes
What are centrocomes adn centroiles, where are they located, adn what is their functions? organize the spindle fibers during cell mitosis, located in the cytoplasm, help dispurse chromosomes during mtiosis, pair of cylindircal organelles
What is the ER and what is it's function tubular network from nuclear membrane to cell membrane. Channel proteins in and out of nucleus. Smooth and rough
What are the 2 types of ER and how are they different? rough: ribosomes, smooth: no ribosome
Describe the appearance and fuction of mitochondria where cellular resiptaion takes place. Double membrane: stores ATP, helps break down carbs, fat, and protein into energy
Describe teh apprearance and function of the golgi apperatus. site of carbohydrate synthesis, carbs combine with protein -pacjaged for secretion, allows substances to be released to exterior
describe the appearance and fuction of lysosomes: contain digestive enzymes: proteins, molecules, old cell parts, dead cells, bacteria, foreign material
What is the function of the ucleus? brain for all cell division adn metabolic activity. DNA and protein
Where is the nucleus found FLOATING IN CYTOPLASM
WHAT IS CHROMATIN WHEN CELL DIVIDE, IT TURNS INTO CHROMOSOMES, LONG THREAD W/dna
wHAT IS FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS DNA/RNA
What DO CHROMOSOMES CONTAIN? DNA
DESCRIBE TEH APPEARENCE AND FUCTION OF TEH NUCLEAR MEMBRANE DOUVLE-LAYERED, OUTER LAYER HAS ROUGH ER, OPENING NUCLEAUS TO CYTOPLASM OR CYTOPLASM TO NUCLEUS
HOW ARE THE NUCLEOLUS AND RIBISOMES RELATE ADN WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION EACH NULCLEUS HAS AT LEST 1 NUCLEOLUS W RIBOSOMES CONTAINING RNA AND PROTEINS. RIBOSOMES HELP WITH PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
WHAT DO RIBOSOMES CONTAIN? RNA AND PROTEINS
COMPOSED OF A PHOSPHARE GROUP, DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR AND NITROGENOUS BASE OF ADENINE,THYMINE,CYSTOSINE ADN GUANINE DNA
COMPOSED OF A PHOSPHATE GROUP, RIBOSE SUGAR AND NITROGENOUS BASE ADENINE, CYSTOSINE, GUANINE, AND URACIL INSTEAD OF THYMINE RNA
SINGLE STRANDED RNA
DOUBLE STRANDED DNA
LOCATED IN CHROMOSOMES ADN GENES DNA
HAS 3 VARIETIES WITH DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS RNA
WHAT ARE THE SIDES OF DNA NUCLEOTIDES MADE OF? ALTERNATING PHOSPHATE AND SUGAR MOLECULES
WHAT ARE THE RUNGS OF DNA MADE OF? NITROGENOUS BASE
ADENINE ALWAYS PAIRS WITH _______ THYMINE
GUANINE ALWAYS PAIRS WITH_______ CYSTOCINE
RNA IS PRODUCED FROM THE ____ IN THE ______ BUT FUNCTIONS IN THE CYTOPLASM DNA, NULEUS
MESSENGER RNA CARRIES DIRECTION FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS FROM DNA, CODE FOR SPECIFIC PROTEIN SYNTHESIS FROM DNA TO RIBOSOMES IN CYTOPLASM
TRANSFER RNA CARRIES AMINO ACIDS FROM CYTOPLASM TO THE RIBOSOMES FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
RIBOSOMAL RNA ASSIST IN LINKING OF THE MESSENGER RNA TO RIBOSOMES
WHERE ARE CHROMOSOMES ADN GENES FOUND NUCLEUS
WHEN ARE CHROMOSOMES VISBLE WHEN THE CELL DVIVDES
WHAT IS A CENTROMERE
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF GENES AND WHERE ARE THEY FOUND? TO PRESERVE AN ORGANISM'S LIFE AND DEVELOPMENT
WHAT ARE GERM CELLS? REPRODUCTIVE CELLS
WHAT ARE SOMATIC CELLS? ALL OTHER CELLS
IN WHICH TYPE OF CELLS ARE THE CHROMOSOMES PAIRED? SOMATIC
IN WHICH TYPE OF CELL ARE THE CHROMOSOMES NOT PAIRED? GERM CELLS
WHAT IS THE DIPLOID # 2N
WHAT IS THE HAPLOID # 23
WHY DO GERM CELLS CONTAIN 1/2 THE NUMBER OF CHROMOSOME AND GENED THAN PRESENT IN SOMATIC CELLS? INDIVIDUAL CHROMOSOMES
HOW MANY AUTOSOME ARE CONTIANED IN THE NUCLEUS 46
HOW MANY SEX CHROMOSOMES aRE CONTAINED IN A NUCLEUS 2
WHICH GENDER HAS XY MALE
WHCH GENDER HAS XX FEMALE
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF TEH HUMAN GERM CELL? REPRODUCE SPECIES
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Created by: 638323941