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Intro to ph ch6


asymptomatic without symptoms
lead-time bias early detection without improved outcome
false positives individuals have positive results on a screening test but do not turn out to have the disease
false negative those who have negative results on the screening test but turn out to have the disease
sequential testing (two-stage testing) screenings that require two or more tests
epidemiological transition the transition from communicable disease to noncommunicable disease as a country becomes more developed
screening tests on individuals who are asymptomatic
multiple risk factor reduction this strategy intervenes simultaneously in a series of risk factors all of which contribute to a particular outcome, such as lung cancer
cost-effectiveness concept that combines issues of benefits and harms with issues of financial costs
net-effectiveness implies that benefits are substantially greater than the harms even after the value
gene-environment protection genetic testing that identifies individulas who are especially likely to develop disease when they experience specific environmental exposures, such as workers who are exposed to low dose chemicals
genetic prevention incorporates efforts to prevent the occurrence of single genes or multiple gene combinations that are likely to produce disease
genetic detection prior to disease includes efforts aimed at detection of genetic defects and implementation of early intervention to prevent phenotypic expression of genes. Managed during childhood.
phenotypic expression of genes when bad genetics show up in children
genotypic-based screening for early disease identifies groups that are at high risk of common disease and that can be targeted for screening.