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Vision Neuro

chapter 6

sensory transduction physical stimuli changed to electrochemical signal
human vision 350 to 700 nm
cornea outer protective structure
iris colored opening/ control the pupil
pupil opening in the iris that allows a certain amnt of light
sclera whites/protective layer
vitreous humor gelatinous inside of eye/proteins
lens controls where image is projected onto the retina
retina neural tissue/back of eye/sensory receptors
optic nerve axonal propagations toward the brain
retina photoreceptors/fovea/optic disk
rods low light/ abundant/cylindrical/periphery
cones high acuity/ daytime/ color/toward fovea
fovea focus/most acute/ all cones
optic disk where the optic nerve exits the eye/ blind spot
amacrine cells connect bipolar and ganglion
bipolar cells receptor to ganglion/1 bipolar per photorec
horizontal cells receptors and bipolar/adjust light
ganglion cells axon potentials generated/optic nerve
photopigments opsin/retinal
light hits rhodopsin rod opsin and retinal
rod opsin changes color change in membrane potential
visual pathway retina-optic nerve-optic chiasm-lgn of thalamus-primary visual cortex
retino-geniculo-cortical pathway broken down in thalamus-staysin ipso
6 layers of primate LGN sep depending on ipsi/contra
layers 1 and 2 magnocellular-larger
layers 3-6 more dorsal/parvocellular
layers 1,4,6 input is contralateral
layers 2,3,5 input ipsilateral
center-surround cells create a field of cells
ganglion cells project 1st ap
hartline frogs/some cells stim more with (out) light
on-off cells only when switch from light to no light and vice versa
kuffle on middle with off periphery(structure)
schiller rod cells= all on cells
young's trichromatic red/green/blue/3 types of receptors
trichromatic coding 3 diff wavelengths
blue cone peak 419 nm
rod peak 496 nm
green cone 531 nm
red cone 559 nm
opponent-process coding blue on, yellow off etc
color vision deficits dichromatics
x-linked protanopia/deuteranopia
protanopia see in yellow and blue/red cones have green opsin
deuteranopia see all 3 colors but green filled w red opsin
tritanopia blue cones absent/defective
primary visual cortex striate cortex
pvc 6 layers w sublayers
projections from LGN enter layer 4
processes info from ganglion cells and LGN
modular organization in V1 blobs/inter-blobs/ocular dominance
blobs cytochrome oxidase/higher rates of met/color-opp process
inter-blobs orientation of objects/spatial/movement
ocular dominance receive info from same eye/ keep each eye separate
vc l 1 dendrites and axons of other layers
vc l 2/3 projection to temporal and parietal
4 receive input from LGN
5/6 project back to LGN
hubel and wiesel V1 line detectors
simple opponent process
complex movement of the line
ungerlerder and mishkin visual association cortex has 2 streams of processing
dorsal stream posterior parietal lobe/magno/where?
ventral stream inferior temporal lobe/m and p/ what?
visual association area analysis/higher order processing
magnocellular no color/high contrast/low spatial/quick
parvocellular color/low contrast/high spatial/slow
visual association cortex functions orientation/mvmt/spatial frequency/retinal disparity/color
dorsal stream location/spatial/terminates in posterior parietal cortex/balint's syndrome
optic ataxia diff reaching for an object
ocular apraxia visual scanning problems
simultanagnosia not more that 1 object at a time
ventral stream highest level of processing/form/3D
higher-order processing V4/ITC/PPC/V5
V4 color
ITC face cells/complex objects
PPC spatial perception
V5 movement/info from superior colliculus/
achromatopsia damage to medial occipital lobe/cant remember colors before damage
pulvinar region of thalamus that projects to V5/coordinates eye and hand mvmts
fusiform face area in fusiform gyrus/temporal lobe
visual agnosia deficits in perception w/o blindness
apperceptive cant perceive objects/
prosopagnosia can't recognize faces
associative visual agnosia cant name objects
Created by: olgakaczma