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Intro to Rad test I

Test 1 review

What technique factor is responsible for controllinf beam penetrability? kVp
if kvp is changed from 65 to 75, how will contrast be affected? Contrast will decrease; they are indirectly proportional; Low contrast will result.
if the mA station is changed from 200 to 800, how will density be affected. It will increase four times because; mAs is directly proportional to density.
if exposure time is changed from .1 second to 2 seconds, how will motion be affect? the longer the time, the longer there is a chance of motion, so increase time equals increase motion.
if the focal spot is changed from large to small, how will density be affect? it won't because the focal spot has nothing to do with density it will only effect detail.
if the SID is changed from 40 to 80, how will magnification be affected? it will decrease magnification.
A _______ change in mAs will produce a perceptible change in density on a finished radiograph. 30 Percent
How would technique be adjusted for a patient who had ascites? you would increase kVp.
What is the primary controlling factor of recorded detail? Motion, but focal spot and SID play a role in detail also.
What does attenuation mean? loss of energy
What is the relationship between densities and grid. the are indirectly proportional; when you use a grid it will decrease the density.
what side is the electron cloud on in the X-Ray tube? Cathode
Describe thermaionic emission heating off ions through heat.
the rotar do? spins the anode and to spread heat
what does Alara stand for? As low as reasonably achievable
What does R stand for and what does it measure? Roentgen and it measures X-rays in air.
100 Rads = 1 ____ Grays or gy
what are the 3 cardinal rules? time, distance, and shield.
What is inherent filitration? the tube and housing are inherent filitration.
True of false mA is directly proportional to current? True
What is the definition of Distortion? misrepresentation of size and shape of any object.
the 15% rule is adjusted for? kVp
Definition of inverse square law? intensity is indirectly proportional to the square of the distance
does focal spot size effect patient dose? NO
What does it mean when the X-Ray is Non-threshold? you get effect not matter what. there is no limit to the effect.
what is the Realtionship between LET and RBE they are directly proportional.
what does LET stand for? Linear energy transfer
what does RBE stand for? Relative Biological Effectiveness
T or F increasing collimation decreases scatter? True
T or F increasing patient thickness decreases scatter? False
quanity and density are ______ proportional? directly proportional
How was the X-ray discoverd who discovered it, where did this person discover it and when did this person discover it? Wilhelm Roentgen discovered it in November 8 1895 in Germany using a Crookes Tube and Barium Platinocyanide.
What is the law of reciprocity? if intensity of the beam dosn't change that the density dosn't change.
How man REMS can you have in a year? 5 Rems
Fluoroscopy is ____ and X-ray is ______. dynamic, static
motion is inversly proportional to detail True or false? True if motion goes up then detail goes down.
Time is directly proportional to motion T or F? True
where does the grid go between? between the patient and the IR.
what is a grid made out of and what does it do? it is made up of aluminum and lead they are altering strip. it picks up scattered radiation.
Define Latent. The picture is there but you can't see it.
Define manifest. the picture is there and you can see it.
What does PACS stand for? Picture Archiving & Communication. It is the storage of images that can be accessed.
T or F the clsoer the object to the plane the better the detail? True
A patient recieve 24mR on A SID of 72 inches- what SID would produce a dose of 32mR on the same patient? 62.35, remember I1/I1 = (D2/D1)squared.
What did Wilhelm Roentgen do in 1901? He won the nobel prize for physics.
Who invented the sims postion and then later the speculum and catheter? J.Marion Sims
Who discovered Radium? pierre and marie curie?
Who is the fater of chemotherapy? Paul ehrlich
Who is william goodspeed? he created a radiograph in 1890, but wasn't credited for the discovery of X-rays.
Three ways X-rays where badly used in the past? To find shoe size, hair removal, and for the dials on the watch. the where also used for in the circus, drank for energy, to blush the skin.
Who Discoverd flouroscopy and when? Thomas Edison in 1896.
Who was the first know death of radiation? Clarence Dally who was Thomas Edison assistant.
Who noticed that radium kills disease cells? Pierre Curie
What did Marie curie do? she made moblie X-rays for the military and also founded the first X-ray school.
What did hormesis say? radiation in small does is beneifical.
What is a cassette and what does it do? a container used to hold the IR. The screen wil fluorence when struck by the X-ray.
What are the four Density of the body and what is the fifth possibilty? Air and Gas, Fat, Muscle, Bone, and metal is the 5th.
The thicker the body is then the _______ the radiation and the______ in time. Increase, increase in time
What happens when you decrease kVp? Contrast Increase which would be high contrast, and penetribily would increase.
If kVp increases what happen to force and energy? the will increase.
If mAs decreases what happen to dose? Dose decreases
Define Divergence? if you have an increase in distance than the dose coming will be the same amount, but the dose will decrease in areas do to a larger area.
Define Barium? Barium dosn't absorb in the body so you will only use it for the GI tract. in some cases you won't use Barium if there is a leakage.
Define Iodine? it does absorb in the body and it is help to see the contrast differences in the body and it will help to see if there is a blockage or leak.
When you angle the body and the body parts are superimposed what will it effect? Contrast
If there is a misrepresentation in size then there is a misrepresentation in shape T or F? False shape has nothing to do with Size.
What is the first law of Theromo Dynamics? you can't create or destroy engery but you can convert it.
How much percentage is Xrays and how much is heat? 1-5 percent X-ray, 95-99 Heat.
What does RAD stand for and what does it measure and what other unit is the same as RAD but 100 time more? Radiation Absorbed does, it measure the patient, and 1 gray equals 100Rads
What does REM stand for and what does it measure and what other unit is the same as REM but a 100 time more Radiation Equivalent in man, it measures occupational dose, and 1 sievert equals one REM.
What does Curie measure and what other unit is the same as it but is a 100 times more? it measure radioactivity and 1 becquerel.
When you increase OID what does it do to magnification? it increases it
How much continuing education do you need every two years? 24 hours
What is contrast Media? it allows you to see the differences in the body, it has a high atomic number so it will absorb radiation.
Where is the focusing cup located and what is it made out of? cathode side and made of nickel.
What is the definiton of density? The overall blackening on a image.
What is the definiton of Contrast? the difference in adjacent densities.
Can you have contrast without density? NO
High or low minimal diffence in adjacent shades? Low
What is the definiton of ionized radation. enery that can produce cancer, X-ray is a form of ionizing radiation. Ionizing wants to make a charge and make it unstable.
Why do we use a compensating filter? To even out densities in the body
Where does scatter radiation come from? the patient.
Where are the filaments and what are they made of? they are on the cathode side and made of tungston, because tungston is a high atomic # and it has a high melting point.
Define Morality is death rate
Define Morbidity is occurence of a disease or condition.
Difine epidemic is a wide spread disease in a local area.
Define Pandemic is a wide spread disease in a global region.
what is fluoroscopy? using X-Rays to image the body in movement and motion.
What is an anode? a positive charge electrode
what is a cathode? a negative electrode
define blur effect of motion
define bucky a type of grid.
define IR image receptor, it is the the image that captures the x-ray beam.
define position is related to the position the patient is laying on table or IR
Define projection. is related to the path of the beam as it enters and exit the patient.
define recorded detail the sharpness of the overall structures in a radiographic image.
what is a X-ray tube a Vacumed sealed pyrex glass with a negative and positive side that creates a X-ray photon.
diagnosis the identificaton of a disease
prognosis the prodiction of an outcome of a disease.
radiopeak cant see it
lucent can see it
external prepration deals with? any thing outside the patient that cant absorb the X-ray and effect image.
what is internal prepration? using enemas, diet, lazatives
Sonography non ionizing or ionizing? non ionizing
magnetic resonace imaging non ionizing or ionizing? non ionizing
computed tomography non ionizing or ionizing? ionizing
nuclear medicine non ionizing or ionizing? radioactive materials injected, ingested or inhaled.
mammography non ionizing or ionizing? ionizing
Fleuroscopy non ionizing or ionizing? ionizing
Dual energy X-ray absotometry what is it? study to determine density of the bone.
C-Arm moblie fleroscopy
lithotripy submerged patient blasted with soundwaves
sailogram study of salvary glands after injected with a contrast agent
ASRT what is it and what does it stand for and where are they located? American society of Radiologic Technologist- provides current news about radiology information. in albuquerque, new mexico
ARRT what is it and what does it stand for and where are they located? a credentialing organization for X-ray techs, American Registry of Radiologic Technologist. in saint paul, minnesota
JRCERT what is it and what does it stand for and where are they loacted? accreditation for schools, Joint Review committe on education in radiologic technology. Chiacago , IL
What does AHRA stand for and what is it? American Healthcare for Radilogy administrators. professional organization for administrators.
What does ISRRT stand for and what is it? International Society of Radiographers and Radiologic Technlogist. improves standards throught the world.
What does SMRT stand for and what is it? Society of Magnetic Rresonace Technology. MRI Tech society.
What does RSNA stand for and what is it? Radiologic Society of North America. a nonprofit medical society with an international memebership.
What does AEIS stand for and what is it? American Educators in imaging and Radiologic Science. one of the largerst societies for educators.
What does ABHES stand for and what is it? American Bureau of Health educating schools, onlgy recognized by us department of education for health care education.
What is analog cassette? film and intensifying screens absorbs x-rays and converts them into light
what is digital cassette? Image plate which traps electons in patterns.
What is added filitration? adding extra filters
inhernet filitration is? automatic filtration, cannot be helped.
what is negative contrast media? Air,Gases
What is positive contrast media? Barium, Iodine.
What does a angled beam do to the body? Elongation
What does a angled body part do? Creates foreshortening
increased SID increases detail T or F true
What the 3 major compents of an atom Electron, proton, and neutron.
What is QF (quality Factor) mean? way to express how damaging a type of radiation is.
What is the formula for QF REM=RAD X QF
How much is a gamma 1
How much is a X-ray 1
how much is a beta ray 10
how much is a alpah ray 20
How do you create a X-ray photon? Source of e-, accerlate e-, and stop e-
Created by: antvill21