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PSY470 Prelim 1

Determinism The assumption that what is being studied can be understood in terms of causal laws
Indeterminism there are specific causes, Mbut they cannot be accurately known
Nondeterminism Free will
Materialism Mind-Body relationship totally explained in physical terms(physics / chemistry)
Monism Attempt to explain everything in terms of one reality - matter
Idealism Everything in so-called world consists of ideas (also monists)
Dualist there are both physical and mental events
Interactionism Mind and body interact, both influence each other
Rationalism logical, systematic, and intelligent thought processes
Irrationalism some causes of behavior are unconscious and as such cannot be pondered rationally
Empiricism Source of all knowledge is sensory observation.
Rationalism Mental operations or principles must be employed before knowledge can be attained.
Nativism emphasizes the role of inheritance in his or her explanation of various human attributes
Vitalism life can never be completely reduced to material things and mechanical laws.
Naive realism The belief that what one experiences mentally is the same as what is present physically
Animinism Belief that everything in nature is alive
Anthropomorphism attribution of human characteristics to animals, non-living things, phenomena, material states, objects or abstract concepts, such as spirits or deities
Ionian Miracle time 6th Century BC
Conditions that led to Ionian Miracle Good climate, excess of food, trade
Factors of Ionian Miracle Leisure Class, Active Trade, Religion
Thales First Philosopher Predicted weather, cornered olive market.
Thales contribution Critical Tradition
Student of Thales Anaximandor
Where do we first see critical tradition Between Thales and Anaximandor
Heraclitus Fires is basic substance, and everything in nature is always changing
Parmenides change is an illusion – there is one fixed reality
Pythagoras believed that everything in the universe could be explained in terms of numbers and numerical relationships.
Empedocles followed Pythagoras and Parmenides; came up with a more complex but naturalist theory of what the universe is made of – four elements
Democritus proposed that all things in the universe are composed of atoms – tiny unites that can be combined and separated but each one cannot be divided; first completely naturalistic view of the universe; there is no soul, no Gods, only atoms and space (the void)
Temple medicine medicine based on religion; form of faith healing; power of suggestion was very important, placebo
Alcmaeon and Hippocrates two major figures early Greek beliefs supernatural thought, human life determined by the Gods.
Alcmaeon first person to practice naturalistic medicine; followed Pythagorians, cures for illnesses; one of the first people to take an empirical approach to anatomy and physiology
Hippocrates established a medical school with an empirialistic, natural approach, Earth
Sophists Truth is relative / Anything is true if someone can be convinced of it.
Socrates Knowable TRUTH – Essences – Inductive Definition(bottom up)
Plato student of Socrates, combined pythogorean with essences
Theory of Forms(Plato) knowledge of empirical world was not true knowledge – appearances and reality, 2 world idea, inferior copies. Distinction between appearance and reality.
Reminiscence Theory Learning is remembering what you already know.
Plato 3 components of soul Rational, Courageous, Appetitive.
Plato on mind Mind / Body dualism, rationalistic approach, mind is superior.
Aristotle who? Student of Plato, took more empirical / biological approach
Aristotle, knowledge = Rational thought and empirical data
Aristotle knowledge comes from? studying nature directly / sensory input/ reason.
Aristotle 4 causes Material Cause, Efficient Cause, Formal Cause, and Final Cause
Aristotle Heirarchy of Souls Vegetative, Snsitive, Rational.
Aristotle theory of cognitive function – 4 levels of knowing Sensory information, Common Sense, Passive Reason, Active Reason
Aristotle laws of association Law of contiguity, Law of frequency, Law of similarity, Law of Contrast. – Basis of learning for last 2000 years.
Aristotle motivation Motivated by higher (rational powers) and lower motives (bodily appetites)
Skepticism No ultimate truth
Cynicism Back to nature (simple life)
Epicureanism Simple life but not extreme like cynics
Stoicism Everything in life happens for a reason
St. Augustine Ultimate knowledge is knowing god. (elevated faith above reason). Free Will. Internal Sense, Last philosopher for 800 years.
Crusades National identities emerged - opened up trade - brought back greek knowledge
Abelard Okay to question church, re-emergence of critical tradition of learning
Thomas Aquinas Reconciled faith and reason.
Renaissance four themes Individualism, Intense Interest in past, Antiaristotelianism (rejected theological interpretation of Aristotle, Personal religion.
Galileo Primary / secondary qualities
Francis Bacon 4 sources of error Idols of the Cave → personal biases of the scientist, Idols of the Tribe → biases due to human nature, Idols of the Marketplace → biases due to the use of language, Idols of the Theater → biases due to blind obedience of authority.
Rene Descartes I think therefore I am, Mathematical reasoning to discover truth, doubt everything that is not clear and distinct.
Rene Descartes on god I perceive there is a physical world, a perfect god would not deceive us about reality, so must trust our perceptions.
Rene Descartes separate mind / body
Created by: spicywafflefries