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PTA Modalities

What are the 4 contradictions of Heat? 1. Acute truama 2. Open Wounds 3. Malignancy 4. Cardiac Insufficiency
List some benefits of Heat Modalities : Increased circualtion, increased tissue repair, increased joint movement, decreased muscle tone, decreased pain
What are 3 Contraindications of Cold? 1. Raynauds 2. Cold hypersensitivity 3. Severe HTN
List the benefits of Cold Modalities? decreased circulation, decreased post injury swelling, decreased muscle tone, decreased joint movement, decreased pain
What are some Contraindications for Ultrasounding? plastic implants, cancerous lesions, hemorrhagic regions, electronic implants and decreased sensation
List some of the benefits of Thermal Ultrasounding: pain management, fibrosis, breaking up scar tissue for stretching
List some of the benefits of Athermal Ultrasounding: tissue repair (sprains, strains, scars, remodelling)
What are IFC's (Interferential Current) used for? Pain and edema management
List 4 contraindications of IFC's: 1. Deep vein thrombosis 2. Pregnancy 3. Electronic implants 4. parasthesia
What are 3 contraindications of TENS? 1. pregnancy 2. Electronic implants 3. parasthesia
What are some benefits of using NMES? improve muscle strangthening, endurance and re-education
What are 3 contraindications of NMES? 1. preganacy 2. AROM restrictions 3. electronic implants
When referring to Laser Treatment why is a low dose laser used? for pain management
Why would a high dose laser by used? for wound healing
List the 2 contraindictions of a Laser: 1. eyes 2. Pregnancy
List the five signs of Inflammations: redness, swelling, pain, heat, loss of function
What is the time frame of Phase 1 of tissue healing? Phase 1 = acute to 2-6 days
What is the time frame of Phase 2 of tissue healing? Phase 2 = 2-6 days to 2-4 weeks
What is the time frame of Phase 3 of tissue healing? Phase 3 = 2-4 weeks to 6-12 months
How many days does the inflammatory phase last? 6 days
What are contraindications if edema is present? HEAT, resisted exercise, stretching and vigorous ROM
How many days does the Fibroblastic phase last? end of inflammatory stage for 4 weeks
What are treatment techniques to help with fibroblastic phase? many modalities, frictions, education, gentle stretching, progressive ROM, begin gentle resistance
how many dayes does maturation phase last? end of fribroblastic phase up to 12 months
What is a contraindication in maturation phase? disuse
What is the therapeutic temperature range when using heat? 40 - 45 degrees
What physical changes happen to the skin/body when using heat modality? increased circulation, swelling, increased motabolism, redness, increased joint movement
How many layers of towel should be used when applying hot pack to a client? 6-8 Layers
The main effects of cold to the body are.. decreased circulation, decreased swelling, decreased muscle tone, decreased joint movement, decreased pain.
The goal when applying cold to skin is to reduce tissue temp by .. 5-6 degrees
Cardinal Signs of inflammation are: redness,swelling, loss of function, pain, heat
What is the target tissue temp. when applying heat? 41-45 degrees
The max depth that cryotherapy can penetrate is? 1-4 cm
cooling is? The transfer of heat away from the bodies tissues
The Theraputic Range for cooling is? 5-6 degrees below core temp.
List the sensation changes of cold: 1. The first 3 mins, intense cold 2. 4-7 mins burning/aching pain 3. 8-15 mins local anaesthesia** 4. 15-30 mins numbness
Icing is best during the ______ stage? Acute
Name the 8 physiological effects of cold: decreased circulation,decreased post injury swelling,reduced metabolic rate,skin changes,delayed tissue repair,decreased joint movement, decreased tissue elasticity,Strength (increased when brief,prolonged will decrease)decreased muscle tone.
What position should the muscle be when applying an ice massage? The longest comfortable length. (use proximal to distal direction)
When referring to ultrasound, What is the near feild? the region of the ultrasonic beam closest to the transducer, where theraputic effects will occour on the tissues.
BNR stands for: Beam Non Uniformity Ratio
What is the equation for BNR? BNR= intensity of highest peak devided by the average intensity of all peaks.
Ultrasound waves can do all three things: Reflection/Refraction/ & Absorbtion
What is reflection in ultrasound? Where a % of the energy is reflected back at the tissue interfaces. ie. the more energy refected back the less energy that goes into the tissue.
What is refraction in ultrasound? Where the ultrasound wave changes direction as it crosses boundaries (muscle to bone etc.)
What is absorbtion in ultrasound? When US is applied to skin it is absorbed producing heat. The denser the tissue the more energy will be absorbed.
What does the off time during ultrasound allow for? Heat dissipation,therefore with pulsed ultrasound no heat should be fealt.
In relation to ultrasound what is captivation? Where little gas pockets in fluids develop into microscopic bubbles, they contract & expand with the frequency of the bubbles
Microstreaming in ultrasound is? Where there is a minute flow of fluid around the microscopic bubbles. Combined with capivation this alters cell membrane activity and therefore speeding up tissue healing.
When would you use thermal ultrasound? pain, breaking up scar tissue
When would you use Athermal ultrasound? tissue repair (sprains, strains, scar remodeling)
What is TENS? The use of electrical stimulation across the skin with the theraputic goal of pain management
Name the 5 types of TENS C-TENS, A-TENS, Brief intense, burst TENS, modulation TENS
Describe C -TENS high frequency- short duration with low to comfortable intensity. Works using the pain gait principle, 80-120 hz
Describe A-TENS low frequency - long duration with comfortable to tolerable intensity. Works off the opiate priciple. 2-4 hz
Describe NMES the use of electrical stimulation to activate muscles through stimulation of intact peripheral N.
NMES tipically follows a _________ square-wave pulse bi-phasic
why does NMES recruit larger fibers first? the larger fibers have less impedence and are more superficial
What should the intensity for NMES be if you were trying to strengthen? greater than 50 mA
what should the intensity be for NMES when you are trying to work on endurance? less than 50mA around 30 Hz
Monochromatic lasers are: Single wavelength beams
T/F HeNe lasers have visible red light?? T GaAs lasers have an artificial red light to help ensure acurate placement
Laser energy is absorbed mostly in ___________ molecules called ____________ photosensitive, chromophores
wavelengths _____ - _______nm will penetrate the dermis and below. 600-1200nm
2 types of application of laser: pencil like- monodiode, small beam area. Cluster diode - arranged in circular or rectangular fashion, large beam area, larger Rx area.
T/F laser requires a coupling media? F- the laser travels freely in space. No need for coupling.
Which type of laser penetrates farther? HeNe or GaAs? HeNe will penetrate less than GaAs.
When referring to laser what is the energy density? the actual amount of energy delivered at the level of the laser per square cm of tissue.
What is the power density in laser?? the amount of energy delivered under the beam area.
Will excess fat effect laser treatment?? Yes- the H20 in the fat will absorb most of the laser energy and treatment will be less effective.
describe IFC a method of using low frequency electrical stimulation on muscles & nerves with minimal unpleasant side effects
How do we create a low frequency when using IFC? We alternate 2 medium frequencies to create one low frequency
Describe the Vector Scan System: Where the amplitude in one circut varies, while the other is fixed, this creates a rotating pattern = treating a larger treatment area. (clover pattern)
3 Main indications for IFC are: pain management, edema management, urinary incontinence
To treat pain using IFC we: Use a high frequency to stimulate the pain gate mechanism (80-120 hz)
To treat chronic pain using IFC we use: a lower frequency to activate optiates and create longer pain relief 1-10 hz
What are the 8 contraindications of IFC ? Arterial disease, DVT, infectious conditions, pregnancy, open or fragile wound, cancer, pacemakers, dermatilogical conditions (fragile skin)
Created by: lyirwin
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