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WGU-Ethics Part III

Kant's theory Our duty is to follow rules that we would consistently will to be universal laws, rules that we are willing to have followed by all people in all situations.
Social contract theory The right thing to do is to follow the rules that rational self-interested people can agree to establish for their mutual benefit.
Replaced divine law Moral law
Aristotle said that virtue is a Trait of character manifested in habitual action
Three advantages of virtue as an ethical standard 1. What kind of person should I be? 2. Helps us explain how a wide variety of actions can be ethical. 3. Allows for the whole spectrum of human experience to influence ethical deliberation.
Disadvantages of virtue as an ethical standard 1. More disagreement about which traits are virtues than there is about which actions are right. 2. Emphasizes character traits instead of actions. 3. Does not provide us with specific rules to guide our actions.
The Divine theory Things are morally good or bad or morally obligatory, permissible or prohibited, solely because of God’s will and commands.
Euthyphro dilemma If moral good acts are willed by God because they are morally good, then they must be morally good prior to and so independently of God’s will.
3 Elements that constitute the theory of natural law 1. The world is a natural order with values and purposes built into its very nature 2. How things ought to be 3. Laws of reason which we are able to grasp because God has made us rational beings.
3 concrete observations about the Brahmanical (Hindu) society 1. The vedas (canonical collection of texts) is its ultimate authority. 2. Social ordering dividing into 4 classes. 3. An act is moral if it safeguards the good of all-not moral if it creates disorder.
4 classes of society in Brahamnical (Hindu) society 1. Brahmana religious – instructional 2. Kshatriya-sovereign defense 3. Vaishya-agriculture-economic 4. Shudra-menial labor.
Class of shudra Menial labor – 4th class
Class of Kshatriya Sovereign defense – 2nd class
Class of Vaishya Agriculture – economic – 3rd class
Class of brahmana Religious instructional 1st class
Humanistic virtues and moral ideas praised in Vedic hymns (12) Truthfulness, giving, restraint, austerities, affection, gratitude, fidelity, forgiveness, non-thieving, non-cheating, giving us their just dessert, and avoiding injury to all creatures.
Satya Truthfulness
Dana Giving
Dama Restraint
Shruti Seen or heard
Created by: rtbrad