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Chapter 1-3 notes

Positioning

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 type of muscular tissue? smooth, cardiac, striated
what is a RA and a RPA? radiologist assistant and radiology practitioner assistant.
identifications of radiographs what are they? Date, R and L markers, patient name, and other identifications, institution name.
how far should you usually be for a chest X-ray? 72in
Where to you shield? gonads
What is a grid and what is it made of? alternating strips of lead and aluminum that reduce scatter radiation.
where do you place the grid? between the patient and the IR.
when do you use a grid? only when kVp is greater than 60 or 9-10 cm of thickness.
collimator box-like structure attached to x-ray tube with lead shutters that limit x-ray beam to a specific area.
what are the primary factors when using technique? kvp,mAs,SID,film,speed.
does kvp decrease or increase for old age decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for pneumothorax decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for emyphysema decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for emaciation decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for degenerative arthritis decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for atrophy decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for pneumonia increase
does kvp decrease or increase for pleural effusion increase
does kvp decrease or increase for hydrocephalus increase
does kvp decrease or increase for enlarged heart increase
does kvp decrease or increase for edema increase
does kvp decrease or increase for ascites increase
disinfection kills it
antiseptics inhibits growth.
True or false you want the object closer to the IR? True
to reduce magnification from OID you would? Increase SID
when SID increase Recoreded detail? Decreases
shuttering is used to produce black background on a image for a DR.
inspiration depresses diaphargm and expands the lungs
expiration expands the diaphargm and shortens the lungs
What is a compensating filiter used for? to even out densities on a object of varing difference.
wedge filiter what area is it used for? areas of the body where density varies gradually. i.e. thoraic spine, nasal bone, abdomen, and hip AP.
Trough filiter what area is it used for? best used for areas of the body where the center area is much greater than the outside area. i.e. chest
Boomerang filiter what area is it used for? designed to confrom to the shaped of the shoulder but can also be used for facial bones.
how many bones in the body? 206
how many bones in the hand? 27
how many saddle joints in the hand? 1
what are the two body regions that seperate the body? axial and apendicular
axial is the. spine and the skull
apendicular is the. shoulders, upper and lower extremities, and its connection points.
compact bone is. strong dense outer layer of the bone
spongy bone is inner dense portion of the bone
trabeculae is network of interconnecting spaces filled with yellow and red marrow.
periosteum is it covers all boney surface except the articular surface
endosteum is tissue lining the medullary cavities of the bones.
ossification development and formation of bones.
long bone portion is called diaphysis
epiphyesal plates is where growth occurs and it is common to get a fracture there.
how do bones grow? outward
Arthology is study of joints or articulations between bones
2 types of joints functional and structual.
structural joints fibrous and cartilaginous, synovial, gliding, pivot, ellipsoid, saddle, and ball and socket.
fuctional joints synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses
projection is. the path of the CR as it enters the patient and exits it.
anteroposterior perpendicular to CR enters the anterior body and exits posterior body.
axial projection longitudinal angulation of cr;angled tube 10 degrees or more
tangential CR is directed toward the outer margin of curved surface to profile a body part just under the surface and projection is free of superimposition.
lateral perpendicular on either side, exits opposite side, and lateral position refers to the side that is on the IR.
transthoracic projection used for shoulders
oblique is enters the body at an angled position usuallyt 45 degrees
RPO right posterior oblique to IR with AP projection
True projection indicates body part must be placed in anatomic position
in profile means outlined view of structure that had a distictive shape, and not superimposed. usally on the side.
Position specific placement of the body part in relation to the table or IR
Upright position erect
Seated position upright position while seated
recumbent laying down in any position
supine laying on back
prone laying on belly
trendelengburg supine position with feet higher than head
fowler supine with head higher than feet
sims recumbent laying left anterior side with left leg extended slightly bent and right knee and thigh bent
lithotomy supine knees and hips flexed and thighs are abducted and rotated laterally
decubitus the tube is crossed table with CR parallel to the floor where position is closet to the IR. IP is crossed tabled
Lordotic position having patient lean backward while in upright position, so that shoulders are in contact with IR. The tube is not angled but when it enters the body with will be angeled.
view describes the body part seen by the IR
method describes the specific projection that was developed
Stomach and liver and intestine are in this regions. epigastric, and left hypocondrium.
the bladder is in this region hypogastric
C1 is in this area mastoid
C2-C3 is in this area Gonion
C3-C4 are in this area Hyoid bone
C5 thyroid cartilage
C7,T1 Vertebra process
T1 2 inches above juglar notch
T2-T3 juglar notch
T4-T5 angle of sternum
T7 inferior angle of scapula
T9-T10 bottom lower portion of costal margins or the ribs
L2-L3 inferior costal margion....naval area
L4-L5 iliac crest
S1-S2 iliac supine superior
coccyx pubis symphysis, and greater trochanters.
Sthenic 50% colon spread even,gall bladder centered upper abdomen, stomach high upper left
Hyposthenic 35% in middle between sthenic and asthenic
Asthenic 10% everything is in lower region or in pelvis area.
Hypersthenic 5% everyting is spread out in the body, gall bladder is high and outside area of body.
open/compound bones spilts and protrudes out the body
compress in vertebrae and push down
simple bone is split but dont protrude out the body
greenstick broken one side but still together like when you bend a stick that dosnt break
transverse in a horizontal angle
Oblique/spiral in a spiral angle
comminuted is broken in many fragments in the body
impacted wedges it self in other bone
posterior fat pad lies on the posterior humerous can only see it when there is a facture to the bone and fluid pushes it out
anterior fat pad is on the anterior side of humerous seen on a lateral elbow
supinator fat pad anterior portion of radius/forearm can see on a later elbow
Scaphoid is also called a navicular but there is also a navicular tarsal
lunate is also called a semilunar
triquetrum is also called a triquetral, cuneiform, or triangular
trapezium greater multangular
trapezoid lesser mutangular
capitate Os magnum
hamate unciform
How many bones in the apendicular skeleton? 126
the axial plane splits the body into what portions superior and inferior
two examples when we would use a wedge filter AP toracic spine and AP Hip
ureters are in what body cavity? abdominal cavity
what is the external body land mark for lvl c2-c3 gonion
what body habitis makes up 5% of the body population? Hypersthenic
give and example of a long bone? humerous,femur, phalanges
trochlear notch is located where? Ulna
if there is an injury in the elbow what will fat pat will be visible and what type of projection? posterior fat pad, and it will be visible in a later projection when there is a fracture to the bone leakage will push it out of the olecranon fossa.
What is the CR for an oblique elbow? perpendicular to the elbow joint
where is the capitulum located? lateral side on humerous
what joints are open in a oblique of the 5th digit? PIP's and DIP's
What is the CR for a lateral hand 2nd MCP and it is perpendicular
what X-ray is done for foreign bodies in the hand? lateral in extension
what is in profile when in ulnar deviation? scaphiod
what is superimposed in a lateral elbow? Coronoid process is superimposed by the radial tuberosity and in the humerous the epicondyles are.
what is your angle and SID if your doing a stechter? 20 degrees and 36 SID
Created by: antvill21