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AP Psych Chapter 9


Chunking Organizing items into familiar, manageable unit; often occurs automatically.
Iconic Memory A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Echoic Memory A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Amnesia The loss of memory.
Implicit Memory Retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called procedural memory)
Explicit Memory Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare". (Also called declarative memory)
Hippocampus A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
Recall A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
Recognition A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items perviously learned, as on a multiple choice test.
Relearning A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
Priming The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
Deja vu The eerie sense that "I've experienced this before". Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Mood-Congruent Memory The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Source Amnesia Attributing to the wrong source of an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
Proactive Interference The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
Retroactive Interference The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
Repression In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Eyewitness Memory/Testimony An account given by people of an event they've witnessed.
Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Flashbulb Memory A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Encoding The processing of information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning.
Storage The retention of encoded information over time.
Retrieval The process of getting information out of memory storage.
Sensory Memory The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Short-Term Memory Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-Term Memory The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Effortful Processing Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Rehearsal The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness of to encode it for storage.
Spacing Effect The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial Position Effect Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Semantic Encoding The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
Acoustic Encoding The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Visual Encoding The encoding of picture images.
Imagery Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Mnemonics Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Created by: Kingsclass