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Chs 12367And Prologue

What is Pyschology? the study of the mind.
how can you study the mind.. conscious and unconscious, not observable so inferred from behavior.
3 TYPES OF psychology Empirical,Theoretical , applied.
Empirical scientists maintaining an objective stance, not bringing bias to data.
Theoretical psychologists take data from empirical psys and create theories
Applied Psychology data and knowledge from lab is applied to the real world contexts to help.
By analyziing behaviour you show whats going on in the mind
When did PSY become an academic subject? 1879
PSy grew out of what subjects ? Biology (study of body) and Philosophy(study of thought)
PSY infers mental life through... observing behavior
Father of philosophy Socrates (470 -399BC)
Socrates speculated about what aspects of the Psyche? Pleasure/pain, 5 senses, imagination, desire.
Who were socrates students? Plato and Aristotle(384-322BC)
What did Plato and aristotle speculate about? learning/memory, motivation/emotion, perception
Aristotle wrote about .. what it is to be a good life
Aristotle wrote about 2 types of living that influenced the movement of PYS.. Hedonia (pursuit of pleasure) & Eudiamonia (a virtuous moral life)
Hippocrates... brain interprets our momentary experience, he was the FIRST DIAGNOSTICIAN...diagnosing types of disorders
Galen, roman psychician(130-200CE)... first personality psychologist, thought 4 different personalities---> different types of fluids in our bodies --> gives rise to personalities (HUMOR THEORY)
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) French mathmetician..believed in .. dualism (2 central aspects of human experience Body (purely psysical) and Mind (spiritual)..they are on different plains and interact thru soul (located in paneal gland)Mind cannot be studied only thru willful spirit that emerges
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) MONISM: brain gives rise to our conscious experience.Body&mind can be scientificallystudied.All conscious experiecne happens in brain.
Hermann von Helmholz(1821-94)german physiologist studies sensory receptors in eye and ear,--> NEURAL IMPULSES, COLOR VISION, SPACE PERCEPTION.
Hermann von Helmholz.... DIEDARD REDUCTIONALIST -all our experiences can be reduced to pyshics. he trained freud.
Emil Kraepelin first to liken mental disorders to physical illness-->pyschological disordes have causes and can be cured--same as mental disorders, treatable, cures.
Emil Kraepelin developed first comprehensive, categorized and categorized mental disorders.
Jean Charcot, french 1.mental disordesr are treatable 2. can be treated by hypnosis &discivered that by placing nervous patients under hypnosis --> he cure cure mental disorders.
Wilhelm Wundt FOUNDER OF PSY AS EMPIRICAL SCI.founded first lab dedicated to psy study of mind, U of Leipzig, start of modern PYS....SENSATIONS AND FEELINGS.
Wilhelm Wundt Sensations and feelings makes up Psy of mind "atoms of mind.
Wilhelm wundt's experienment. having participant to press a button once they hear sound/once they become consiously aware of having hear sound (consious processing of experience - take longer than sensations/feelings.
Wilhelm's famous students G. Stanley Hall (found American PSY association), James Mckeen cattell, Hugo Munterberg (applied PSY to law/economy)
After wilhelm wundt, father of PSY, PSY started to split into diff branches.. Structuralist and Functionalism. and after this split---gestalt, pyschoanalysis, behaviorism.
Structuralism: Edward Bradford TITCHNER interested in structure of mind...USED INTROSPECTION (looking inward)..looked at attention span and reaction time.
Titchner's introspection test(failed): Asked trained introspectors to report thoughts, feelings....found unreliable-people had to be verble and there are unconscious forces..structuralism died.
To replace structuralism... William James founded Functionalism!
William James and Functionalism discover how the process that underline behvour and why they evolved. all our concsious and unconcious experience serves a purpose and helped our ancestors survive.
Sigmund Freud PSYCHOANALYSIS, unconsious. controversial methods of studying personality and how practice clinical PYS....
Freud worked with women with hysteria..they cured be cured through listening to them and their stories.
PSY in 1920' moved away from sci of mental life to Behaviour.
Origins of behaviourism: Edward thorndike, ivan pavlov, john b watson, b.f.skinner.
Ivan Pavlov (ANIMALS CAN BE TRAINED BY HUMANS, Classical conditioning)//
John B.Watson (u can train humans through classical condtioning)//
B.F.Skinner- (developed operant PYS, train people w/ rewards and punishments)
Stimulus Response model the key mechanism within the animal which permits it to adapt as perfectly as possible to its environment.
Epaphenomemon personality , thoughts and feelings are epaphenomomen -- they don not affect our behavioir.
Humanistic PSY Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers !1950's and 1960' --mechanistic way of explaining human is not good..promoting growth and human flourishing not just getting rid of mental disorders.Bright side of PSY.
1960- Cognitive Revolution stimulus repsonse model is not enought, more goes on between stimulous and response - Stiumuls-->organism--> response.
Scientific Attitude:3 componants: Curiousiity (explore an dunderstand through sci inquiruy, 2.Skeptical(there might be errors) 3. Humility (an idea may not be perfect)
Scientific Method: 1.Postulate a theory(describes how 2ormore variable relate)(must be tested and be falsafyible) 2. Specify a hypothesis(educated guess how it will go) a study 4.Collect data 5. Test hypothesis 5. Publish results/or make new hypothesis.
3 types of data used in PSY research 1 Self Report(interviews etc) 2. Behavioral observations 3. Archival records (birth rates, criminal history etc)
Levels of Psychological Explanation 1. Description of phenomenon, theorize about relation of variables(e.g. case study,surveys,naturalistic observation) 2. Correlation, r 2 variabls related, used for prediction, not causation. 3. Causation, does one variable cause another?
Correlation a statistical measure of the extent to which two variable are associates. Prediction NOT CAUSATION(range from -1 to +1) (pictoral image of data=scatterpoints)
two types of variables Independent variable (manipulated dep var on participants) Dependent variable (measured, all the same between group)
Measures of central tendency Mode(mostfreqentoccuring), Mean(average), median(middle)
Measure of variation range, and standard diviation
6 Factors the affect PSY experience 1.Biology(body) 2. Plasticity(changing as we learn) 3.Cognition(thinking,memory,extensive language use 4. Developmet(we PSYlogically develop throughout lifetime) 5. Motivation(energize&direct behavior over time) 6. Society(family unit,neighborhood)
Biological explanations of PSY experiences 1.Genetics(set limits/possiblities) 2. Nervous system(brain-organ of mind) 3. Endrocrine system(hormones affect pys experiences) 4. Immune system
CASE STUDY: FINEAS GAGE, 25 man, railroad forman 1848, bright, well like, energetic,sober, hardworking metal rod severed his head-->personailty changed. Brain and nervous system connected.
CASE STUDY: Julia, 21 yr, epelectic rages,drugs no effect,tried suicide,violent&stabbed women who passed her by stimulated different areas of brain,stimulated amygdala&smashed guitar.Doctor killed amygdala&violence ended.
CASE STUDY; HEnry M. epilepsy,drugs no help,violent outbursts doctor destroyed hippocampus and lost ability to retain new memories.Parts of brain-->memory.
CASE STUDY: Genie,abused,loacked up in attic from 20mnths till 11 years of age,physical growht stunted
The nervous system communication network coneccts brain and spinal cord to all glands, sensory organs, muscles. (split in two parts - cetnral and peripheral)
Central N.S. brain and spinal cord
Peripheral N.S. all the nerves that radiate from CNS (again is split up into 2 parts - somatic and autonomic)
Somatic nervous system (N.S., P.N.S.) (voluntary control)take all incoming msg from sensory organs and send them inward to central n.s. && and relay motor commands to muscles.
Autonomic NS (N.S., P.N.S.) (involuntary conrtol, stomach, liver, heart) Divided again -sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Sympathetic NS (N.S., P.N.S.,Autonomic) arousal, fight or flight
Parasympathetic (N.S., P.N.S., Autonomic) restores body to calm
ENDROCRINE SYSTEM!hormones (chemical messages) a collection of ductless glands that regulate growth, sexual development, reproduction, metalism, modd and certain aspects of behavior.
Endrcrine systemm (glands) secretion of hormones---> influences on our body.
Pituitary glad function--> to secrete a hormone & that hormone stimulates other hormones to be released throughout the body
Nervous system Nerve cell- send and recieve info in form of electrichemical signals throughout entire body
3 types of nerves cells 1.sensory neurons - relay sensory info in to central N.S. 2. Motor nearons - info that goes out from C.>N to the muscles 3. Interneurons - neural connects senosry and motor neurons
Glial cells structural support, insulation and nutriatns, development and repair and relaying messages from one neuron to the next. The glue that hols the N.s together
STRUCTURE OF NEURON: Soma, dendrites and axons. Soma - cell body that contains nucleas and maintains chemical balence. Dendrites, receive impulses frmo sensory organs and conduct info into soma. Axons, responsible for sending impulses out of nuerons to other neurons.
At the end of each axon--- axon terminal ..contains nuerotransmitters. Covered by Myelin sheath (insulation, assisting speed of transport,stops leaked of nuerotransmitters)
NEURON IN ACTIONFirst action begins with Dendrites, they are stimulated and there is electrical inbalance--balance in soma--disrupted-->stimulates action potential (busrt of electrical activity surges through) Stimulation of dendrite needs to be enough to meet absolute threshold to make action potential.Action potential surges down to axon to synaptic cleft to another dendrite.
PHRENOLOGY historical (FRANCIS JOESEPH GALL) psuedo-scientific theory. Bumps on head show pyschological characteristics.
CLINICAL CASE STUDIES - doctors observe people w/ brain show where brain problem is. 1.drawbacks..brain damage?--> neurons can grow bk..brain can assume funtions of damaged funtion 2. natural brain damage,,cannot verbalize. 3. Lesioning/drugs on brain parts and measuring affect on behavior 4. Electrical readings - (EEG)detect, amplfy and record activity. 5. Brain imaging (Computerized tomographyCT), (postitron emission tomogrphy PET) (Magnetic resonance imagingMRI)
The brain is 3 mini-brains rollef into one 1. the brainstem (core brain, oldest) 2. The limbic system (primitive mammalian brain) 3. The cerebral cortex (human brain)
1.BRAIN STEM (oldest evoluntionarily)! 3 main parts!(and cerelbellum behind it) Medulla, Pons, reticular formation.
Medulla (part of brain stem) breathing swollowing
Pons (part of brain stem) co-ordination, walking, movemtn, sleep arousal)
The reticular formation (part of brain stem) sleep, arousal, retentionn.
The cerebellum (behind the medulla, brain stem) the little brain, coordinate balance.
The Limbic system (2/3 parts of brain--a ring of loosly connected structures that regulate motivation, emotiona dn memory. 4 key structures 1. thalamus - directing sensory infornatioin from senses into cerebral cortx 2. Amagdala - agression-fear, rage, violence. 3. Hippocampus - formation of new memories. 4. Hypothamalus - basic emotion, dirves regulates body temperature.
Created by: hod
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