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IntroPsych110 Malloy

Chapters 1-3

Positive Psychology The focus on what goes right, on things that make life most worth living
Biological Psychology Use of high tech scanning devices and other methods to study how biological processes in the brain affect and are affected by behavior and mental processes
Engineering Psychology Study of making technology (remotes, websites, cell phones, computer keyboards, etc.) easier to use and less likely to cause errors
Cognitive Psychology Study of mental abilities such as sensation and perception, learning and memory, thinking, consciousness, intelligence, and creativity
Developmental Psychology Changes in behavior and mental processes that occur from birth through old age and the causes and effects of those changes are studied
Personality Psychology study of individuality
Clinical and Counseling Psychology Conducting research on the causes and treatment of mental disorders and offer services to help troubled people overcome those disorders
Community Psychology ensures that psychological services reach the homeless and others who need help but tend not to seek it
Health Psychology Study of the relationship between risky behaviors such as smoking or lack of exercise and the likelihood of suffering heart disease, stroke, cancer, or other health problems
Educational Psychology Conducting research and developing theories about teaching and learning
School Psychology IQ testing, diagnosing learning disabilities and other academic problems, early detection of mental health problems and crisis intervention following school violence
Social Psychology Study of the ways people think about themselves and others and how people influence one another
Neuroscience To examine the structure and function of the nervous system in animals and humans at levels ranging from the individual cell to overt behavior
Consciousness The mental experiences created by sensory-perceptual systems
Wundt and Consciousness Developed first formal psychology research lab at the University of Leipzig in Germany. His focus was consciousness
Titchener Student of Wundt’s who used introspection in his lab (looking inward). Tried to define structure of consciousness
Psychodynamic Approach Assumes that our behavior and mental processes reflect constant and mostly unconscious psychological struggles within us
Behavioral Approach Focuses on observable behavior and how that behavior is learned
Cognitive Approach Focuses on how we take in, mentally represent, and store info, how we perceive and process that info, and how these cognitive processes affect our behavior
Humanistic Approach Seeing behavior as determined primarily by each person’s capacity to choose how to think and act
Cultural and Social Influences on Behavior The accumulation of values, rules of behavior, forms of expression, religious beliefs, occupational choices, and the like for a group of people who share a common language and environment
Critical Thinking Process of assessing claims and making judgements on the basis of well supported evidence
Hypothesis In scientific research, a specific, testable proposition about a phenomenon
Operational Definition A statement that defines the exact operations or methods used in research
Theory An integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena
Data (Datum) Numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for research conclusions
Mind Functioning Brain
Observational Methods Prcedures for systematically watching behavior in order to summarize it for scientific analysis
Naturalistic Observation The process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs I the natural environment
Case Study A research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation
Survey A research method that involves giving people questionnaires or special interviews designed to obtain descriptions of their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions
Correlational Study A research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, test predictions, evaluate theories and suggest new hypotheses
Experiment A situation in which the researcher manipulates one variable and then observes the effect of that manipulation on another value, while holding all other variables constant
Experimental Group The group that receives the experimental treatment
Control Group The group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group
Independent Variable Variable manipulated
Dependent Variable Factor affected by the independent variable
Confound Any factor that affects the dependent variable along with or instead of the independent variable
Mean Measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of the scores in a set of data
Correlation Coefficient A statistic, r, that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables
Neurons Fundamental units of the nervous system; nerve cells
Glial Cells Cells in the nervous system that hold neurons together and help them communicate with one another
Axons Fibers that carry signals from the body of a neuron out to where communication occurs with other neurons
Dendrites Neuron fibers that receive signals from the axons of other neurons and carry those signals to the cell body
Synapses The tiny gaps between neurons across which they communicate
Action Potential An abrupt wave of electrochemical changes traveling down an axon when a neuron becomes depolarized
Neural Network Neurons that operate together to perform complex functions
Central Nervous System The parts of the nervous system not housed in bone
Psychology Science of behavior and mental processed
Structuralism and Titchener Developed by Titchener as a way to describe consciousness by adding clearness as an element of sensation
Origin of Scientific Psychology 1879, Wilhelm Wundt, University of Leipzig in Germany
Freud and Psychoanalyisis Vienna, Austria; Believed that all behavior is motivated by psychological processes at an unconscious level (psychoanalyis)
James and Functionalism Developed functionalism, which focused on the role of consciousness in guiding people’s ability to make decisions, solve problems, and the like (North America)
Watson and Behaviorism The most important determinant of behavior is learning and that it is through learning that animals and humans are able to adapt to their environment
Skinner and Behaviorism Mapped out details of how rewards and punishments shape, maintain, and change behavior
Neurotransmitters Chemicals that assist in the transfer of signals form one neuron to another
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential A postsynaptic potential that depolarizes the neuronal membrane, making the cell more likely to fire an action potential
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential A post synaptic potential that hyperpolarizes the neuronal membrane, making a cell less likely to fire and action potential
Somatic The subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that transmits information from the sense to the central nervous system and carried signals from the central nervous system to the muscles
Autonomic A subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the central nervous system and the heart, lungs, and other organs and glands
Reflexes Involuntary, unlearned reactions in the form of swift, automatic and finely coordinated movements in response to external stimuli
Parasympathetic The subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that typically influences activity related to the protection, nourishment, and growth of the body
Sympathetic Subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that readies the body for vigorous activity
Peripheral Nervous System The parts of the nervous system not housed in bone
EEG Electroencephalograph, measures general electrical activity of the brain (electrodes)
PET locates cell activity by recording where substances such as glucose or other cellular fuels become concentrated after being made radioactive and injected into the bloodstream
MRI Exposes the brain to a magnetic fiels and measures the resulting radio frequency waves to get a clear picture of the brain’s anatomical details
fMRI Combines advantages of PET and MRI and is capable of detecting changes in blood flow that reflect ongoing changes in the activity of neurons
TMS Transcranial magnetic stimulation, uses strong magnetic fields to temporarily stimulate or disrupt the activity of neurons in a particular region of the brain
Cerebellum The part of the hindbrain whose main functions include controlling finelt coordinated movements and storing memories abort movement but which may also be involved in impulse control, emotion, and language
Thalamus A forebrain structure that relays signals from most sense organs to higher levels in the brain and plays an important role in processing and making sense out of this info
Hypothalamus A structure in the forebrain that regulates hunger, thirst, and sex drive
Amygdala A structure in the forebrain that, among other things associates features of stimuli from two sensory modalities
Hippocampus A structure in the forebrain associated with the formation of new memories
Limbic System A set of brain structures that play important roles in regulating emotion and memory
Motor Cortex The part of the cerebral cortex whose neurons control voluntary movements in specific parts of the body
Sensory Cortex The parts of the cerebral cortex that receive stimulus info from the senses
Association Cortex The parts of the cerebral cortex that receive info from more than one sense or that combine sensory and motor info to perform complex tasks
Hindbrain An extension of the spinal cord contained inside the skull where nuclei control blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and other vital functions
Midbrain A small structure between the hindbrain and forebrain that relays info from the eyes, ears, and skin and that controls certain types of automatic behaviors
Forebrain The most highly developed part of the brain; it is responsible for the most complex aspects of behavior and mental life
Lateralization The tendency for one cerebral hemisphere to excel at a particular function or skill compared with the other hemisphere
Endorphins Class of neurotransmitters that bind to opiate receptors and moderate pain
Fight or Flight A physical reaction triggered by the sympathetic nervous system that prepares the body to fight or to run from a threatening situation
Empiricism Study of knowledge
Corps Collosum Hemisphere is connected by a large bundle of neurons
Basic Research Studying basic behavioral phenomenon (social psych, cognitive psych, etc.)
Applied Research Done for the good of others
Behavior Genetics The field of study that examines the role of genetics in human behavior (nature vs. nurture)
Inductive Takes events and makes generalizations
Deductive Arrives at conclusions based on generalizations
Evolutionary Theory How human behavior has evolved in order to promote adaptation and reproduction
Replication Same results even if reproduced by different labs/people
Reliability of Measurement Data from measurements of a single object should be similar unless something caused a change
Naturalistic Observation Making observations without getting involved
Correlation and Causality Correlation between two variables doesn't mean that one causes the other
Myelin Sheath Essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system and it surrounds the axon of a neuron
Curare and Botox Paralyzes muscles, related to Ach. South Americans use this to paralyze animals
Left Hemisphere Controls right side of the brain
Plasticity Brain tissue reorganizes function in response to damage. Ability to create new synapses
Right Hemisphere Controls left side of brain
Otto Loewi's Famous Experiment Discovered that nerve impulses were chemical not electrical
Criteria for determining if a chemical compound is a neurotransmitter 1. Chemical must be produced within a neuron 2. Chemical must be found within a neuron 3. When a neuron is stimulated a neuron must release the chemical
Criteria for determining if a chemical compound is a neurotransmitter (continued) 4. When a chemical is released it must cause a biological effect 5. After a chem is released it must be inactivated 6. If the chemical is applied on the postsynaptic membrane it should have the same effect as when it is released by a neuron
Opiate Receptors Type of protein found in the brain
Reticular Formation Part of the brain involved in stereotypical actions such as sleeping,walking and laying down
Personality and the ARAS Lots of stimulation= Introvert Lack of timulation= Extrovert
Frontal Lobe Motor control, personality, planning and decision making
Occipital Lobe Visual reception
Parietal Lobe High level processing of sensory info
Temporal Lobe Both located on each side of the brain. Respoonsible for auditory processing, speech hearing
Pleasure Centers Brains produce pleasure or reward when engaging in behavior necessary for survival
Cortex Outermostlayer of the brain
Franz Gall and Phrenology Understanding the effect of the brain on behavior
Created by: 707833130