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Psychology: modules

Modules 1,2,4,5,6

Wilhelm Wundt The "father" of psychology. Psychology born in 1879.
Structuralism First prominent system for organizing psychological beliefs.
Gestalt Psychology Alternative systems. The whole is different from the sum of its parts.
William James Studied the functions of consciousness.
Functionalism The way consciousness helps people adapt to their environment.
Sigmund Freud A stereotypic therapist.
Psychoanalytical Psychology Focused on abnormal behavior and relied on personal observation.
Ivan Pavlov Observable behaviors
Abraham Maslow Emphasized conscious experience
Cognitive Perspective Focus on how people think-how they take in, process, store, and tetrieve information.
Biological Perspective Attempts to understand behavior by studying the biological structures and substances underlying a given behavior thought or emotion.
Social-Cultural Perspective Focus on how thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation.
Behavioral Perspective Believe we learn certain responses through rewards, punishments and observations.
Humanistic Perspective Consider how healthy people strive to reach their full potential.
Psychodynamic Perspective Consider how our helping behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
Researcher Bias Observations may be influenced by what you discover. Bias occurs when any factor unfairly increases the likelihood that the researcher will come to a perticular conclusion.
Critical Thinking Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden balues, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Participant Bias A tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed or they believe they know what the researcher wants.
Naturalistic Observation A technique in which the observer makes no attempt to manipulate or control the situation.
Correlational Study A research project designed to discover the degree to shich two variables are related to each other.
Positively Correlated Both variables increase together
Negatively Correlated One variable increases while other decreases
Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Studies A research technique that studies the same group of individuals over a long period of time.
Cross Sectional Studies A research technique that compares individuals from different age groups at one time.
Operational Definitions A specification of the exact procedures used to make a variable specific and measurable for reaserch purposes
Independant Variable The research variable that a researcher actively manipulates, and if the hypothesis is correct, will cause a change in the dependent variable.
Dependent Variable The behavioral or mental process where the impact of the independent variavle is measured.
Experimental Group The participants in an experiment who are exposed to the treatment, that is, the independent variable.
Control Group The participants in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable.
Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance minimizing pre-existing differences among different groups
Confounding Variables In an experiment, a variable, that could influence the dependent variable.
Double-Blind Procedure An experimental procedure in which both the research in which both the research participants are ignorant to the expected outcome.
Placebo A nonactive substance or condition.
Data Analysis Run the experiment and collect the data. Then analyze the numbers, using statistics, to find out if the hypothesis is supported.
Replication Repeating a research study to see if the results are reliable.
Prenatal Before birth. Starts at conception and ends at birth.
Zygote Fertilized egg; it enters a two-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
Genes The biochemical units of heredity that direct how our cells become specialized for various functions during prenatal development.
Embryo The developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the end of the eighth week.
Fetus The developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth.
Teratogens Substances that cross the placental barrier and prevent the fetus from developing normally.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome When the mother drinks alcohol during the pregnancy, the child is born with FAS. -symptoms: noticable facial misproportions.
Rooting Reflex A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple" this is an automatic, unlearned response.
Temperament A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Maturation Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Jean Piaget Pioneer in the study of developmental psychology who introduced a stage theory of cognitive development that led to a better understanding of children's thought processes.
Cognition All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering.
Schemas Concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information.
Assimilation Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
Accommodation Adapting one's current understandings to incorporate new information.
Sensorimotor Stage The stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Object Permanence The awareness that things continue to exist even when tou cannot see or hear them.
Preoperational Stage The stage when a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Conservation The principal that properites such as mass, volume, and a number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
Egocentrism The inability to take another's point of view
Concrete Operational Stage The stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental skills that let them think logically about concrete events.
Formal Operational Stage Stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts and form strategies.
Stranger Anxiety The fear of strangers that infants comonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
Attachment An emotional tie with another person; young children demonstrate attachment by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on seperation.
Imprinting The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
Authoritarian Parenting A style of parenting marked by making demands on the child, being responsive setting and enforcing rules, and discussing the reasons behind the rules.
Permissive Parenting High in warmth, rarely discipline their children. Low communication from parent to child, high child to parent. Expectations of maturaty is low.
Authoritative Parenting High in warmth, moderate discipline, lots of talking and negotiating, set rules, enforcing them. Communication is high, moderate maurity expectations.
Continuity and Stages Attachment and development. Cognitive development-continueous Motor development-stages
Stability and Change Temperament-can change for infants.
Nature and Nurture Heredity and environment shapes a child's development.
Adolescence The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
Puberty The period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary Sex Characteristics The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristics Non-reproductive sexual characteristics.
Sexual orientation An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either the other gender or one's own gender.
Reasoning A sequence of increasingly sophisticated cognitive abilities.
Formal Operational Stage When we may develop adult thinking and reasoning.
Morality One's sense of right and wrong.
Lawrence Kohlberg Psychologist, authored a theory of moral resoning to demonstrate how our way of thinking about moral situations changes with our level of development.
Preconventional Moral Reasoning Most primitive level; avoid punishment or gain reward. Most under 9.
Conventional Moral Reasoning Concern to fit in and play one's role as a good citizen. Strong desire to follow rules and laws.
Post conventional Moral Reasoning References to universal ethical principles that represent the rights or obligations of all people.
Erik Erikson Created an eight-stage theory of social development.
Stages of Psychosocial Development -Experimentation -Rebellion -'self'-ishness -optimism and energy
Continuity and Stages -Development relies on both -Attention to gradual growth within stages
Stability and Change -Adolescence affected by both -Temperament-constant -Relationships/behaviors-change
Nature and Nurture -Nature:spark feelings and interests -Nurture: learn to express
Social Clock The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.
Emerging Adulthood When adolescents go into true adulthood
Menopause The time of natural cessation of menstruation
Alzheimer's Disease A progressive and irreversible brain disorger characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language and physical functioning.
Senile Dementia The mental disintegration that acompanies alcoholism, tumor, stroke, aging, and most often, Alzheimer's Disease.
Memory Younger people remember things better
Recall Tasks that give us no clues to jog our memories
Recognition See something and remember what is is
Fluid Intelligence One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Crystallized Intelligence One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
Life Events Family and work-related events-bring major lifestyle alterations.
Erik Erikson Author of the psychosocial developmental stage theory.
Generatively Being productive and supporting future generations.
Sigmund Freud Founder of psychoanalysis and the psyhosexual stages of development.
Love -Intimate self-disclosure -Shared emotional and material support -Similar interests and values
Emptying of the Nest When children move out of the house
Dying and Death People die different ways
Hospice Recieve comforting medical attention, but avoid death-defying interventions.
Created by: ayresc