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Stack #699705

Psychology Test 1

QuestionAnswer
perceptual set a mental predisposition to perceive on thing and not another
feature detectors nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of a stimulus, such as shape, angle, and movement
sensory adaptation diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
difference threshold the minimum difference between two stimulus required for detection 50 percent of the time
absolute threshold the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
top-down processing information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
bottom-up processing analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
perception the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
sensation the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
latent content the underlying meaning of a dream
manifest content remembered story line of a dream
REM rebound the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
REM sleep rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
change blindness failing to notice changes in the environment
inattentional blindness failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
selective attention the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
dual processing the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious attacks
consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environments
action potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
reflex a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
plasticity the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by recognizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
parasympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
sympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
inter-neurons neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
motor neurons neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
sensory neurons neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
operational definition a statement of the learning procedures used to define research variables
naturalistic observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
independent variable the variable whose effect is being studied in and experiment
hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory
experimental group the group that is exposed to the treatment, in an experiment
dependent variable the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
control group the group that is NOT exposed to the treatment, in an experiment
Created by: soul4rocknroll