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Cosmetology Ch 9

Properties of the hair and scalp

The scientific study of hair, it's diseases, and care is called trichology
The two parts of a mature hair strand are the hair shaft and hair root
The portion if the hair the projects above the skin is the hair shaft
The follicle, bulb, arrector pili muscle, and the sebaceous glands are main structures of the hair root
The tubelike depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root is the follicle
Hair follicles are not found on the palms of the hands or the soles of the fee
The follicle extends downward from the epidermis, where it surrounds the dermal papilla
The lowest area or part of the hair strand is the hair bulb
A small, cone-shaped area at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb is the dermal papilla
A tiny, involuntary muscle fiber inserted in the base of the hair follicle is the arrector pili
The oil glands of the skin connected to the hair follicles are sebacaeous glands
An oily substance secreted from the sebaceous glands is sebum
The overlapping layer of hair with transparent, scalelike cells is the cuticle
The three main layers of the hair shaft are the cuticle, medulla, and cortex
Swelling the hair raises the cuticle layer and allows for penetration
For chemicals to penetrate a healthy cuticle hair layer, they must have an alkaline pH
The fibrous protein core of the hair, formed by elongated cells containing melanin pigment, is the cortex layer
The medulla is the innermost layer of the hair and is composed of round cells
Hair is composed of a protein that grows from cells originating within the hair follicle
The process by whereby living cells mature and begin their journey up the hair shaft is Keratinization
The five main elements that make up the chemical composition of human hair are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen and sulfur
The chemical bonds that hold together the amino acid molecules peptide bonds
An end bond is also known as a peptide bond
When peptide bonds hold together a very long chain of amino acids, it is called a polypeptide chain
The three tupes of cross-links that form the bonds between the polypeptide chains are hydrogen bonds, salt bonds and disulfide bonds
A week type of physical side bond that is easily broken by water or heat is a hydrogen bond
A salt bond is easily broken by use of strong aklaline or acidic solutions
Bonds that must be chemically separated are disulfide bonds
Hydrogen chemical hair relaxers break disulfide bonds and during rinsing convert them to lanthionine bonds
The natural hair pigment found in the cortex layer of the hair is melanin
Two different types of melanin are eumelanin and pheomelanin
Natural wave patterns are the result of genetics
Asians tend to have extremely straight hair
extremely curly hair grows in long twisted spirals
to help minimize tangles in extremely curly hair when washing you should use a detanglinig rinse
Extremely curly hair may often break or knot easily due to low elasticity
Four important factors to consider in hair analysis are texture and porosity elasticity and density
The thickness or diameter of the individual hair strand is the hair texture
Hair texture is classified as coarse, medium, or fine
The measurement of individual hair strands on one square inch of the scalp is hair density
The ability of the hair to absorb water or oil is porosity
Chemical services performed on hair with low porosity require more alkaline solutions
Hair with high porosity is often the result of over-processing
The ability of the hair to stretch and return without breaking is elasticity
Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50 percent
When shaping and styling hair, consider the hair's natural growth pattern
Dry hair and scalp can be caused by inactive sebaceous glands
Oily scalp and hair can be treated by properly shampooing with normalizing shampoo
Hair that is not pigmented and almost never has a medulla is vellus
Long, soft hair found on the scalp, legs, arms, and bodies of males and females is terminal
The phases of hair growth are anagen, catagen, and telogen
The growth phase where new hair is produced is anagen
The average growth of healthy scalp hair is on half inch per month
The final of resting phase in the hair growth cycle is telogen stage
In general, the cross section of curly hair can be oval
The term used to identify abnormal hair loss is alopecia
The sudden falling out of hair in round patches or baldness in spots is called alopecia areata
Two products approved by the FDA to stimulate hair growth and allowed for sale in the United States are minoxidil and finasteride
The technical term used to describe gray hair is canties
A variety of canties, characterized by alternating bands of gray and pigmented hair is ringed hair
A condition of abnormal hair growth on areas on the body is hypertrichosis
Trichorrhexis nodosa is characterized by brittleness of the hair and the formation of swellings along the hair shaft
The technical term used to describe beaded hair is monilethrix
The medical term for dandruff is pityriasis
The type of fugal infection characterized by red papules at the opening of the hair follicles is tinea captis
A highly contagious skin disease caused by a mite parasite is scabies
An acute localized bacterial infection of the hair follicle that produces constant pain is a furuncle
An inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphyloccocci is carbuncle
The spread of diseases can be prevented by practicing approved sanitation and disinfection procedures