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Psych ch. 2 UMW

chapter 2 question answers

Theory gathers a lot of data and makes a statement on how the world works
Hypothesis what you think is going to happen when you test a theory
Falsifiable theory can be proven wrong,
Confirmation bias people really want to prove their theories
Case study get a lot of info about one case, Freud famously used these, used when weird, horrible things happen
Advantages to case study rich in info, only way to study weird problems
Disadvantages to case study generalizability, can’t prove theories this way, can falsify
Observation watching what’s going on
Naturalistic observation observing people in natural habitat, less reactivity, no control, more ecological validity
Laboratory observation bring people into lab, more control, more reactivity, less ecological validity
Ecological validity when things are more like actual env’t
Reliability consistency
test-retest reliability giving a test multiple times
Inter-rater reliability a different person grades and scores tests
Alternate forms reliability giving different versions of the test
Validity is it really measuring what we want it to
Content validity is it measuring the correct thing
Criterion validity there is outside criteria that the test predicts
Advantages to surveys covers large population, easy, cheap
Disadvantages to surveys people lie on survey, volunteer bias
Representative sample it has many different types of people
Correlation statistic that tells about a relationship between variables
Positive correlation as one variable increases the other variable increases
Negative correlation as one variable increases the other variable decreases
Strong correlation how close together the numbers are
Always remember Correlations do not imply causation
Experiment manipulates variables, can find causation
Independent variable variable being manipulated
Dependent variable variable measured
Random assignment random grouping
Confound another variable that gets in way of experiment variable with another explanation
Quasi-experiment experiment without random assignment, ex. Race, gender
Placebo effect someone tells you that you will have an effect, so you have that effect
Single blind patient doesn’t know what they’re getting
Double blind patients and experimenters don’t know what they’re getting
Control condition participants not exposed to same treatment as in experimental condition
Experimenter effects unintended changes in study participants behavior due to cues inadvertently given by experimenter
Concerns with cross-cultural research language translation, stereotypes
Problem with average the exact numbers could be really close together or really far apart
Standard deviation ho clustered or spread out individual scores are around mean
Statistically significant high probability that the difference between control and experiment is real
Cross-sectional study study where people of different ages are compared at a given time
Longitudinal study same group of people at different times
Informed consent participants enter a study voluntarily
Reactivity when individuals alter behavior due to awareness of being observed
Created by: lfalkens
Popular Psychology sets




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