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PSY 273

exam 1- ch 2

genes guides the formation of physical, behavioral, and psychological traits -alleles= specific form of a gene
genotype exact genetic make-up ex: DNA biologists
phenotype observational traits; which genotypes are expressed psychologists
Zygote sperm (23 chromosomes) and ovum (23 chromosomes) fuse together (46 chromosomes)
Infertility no success to have children after 12 months of trying (10%) - in vitro fertilization (30%) - hunyuan method (50%)
Sex Determination -23rd pair of chromosomes (sex chromosomes) -female= XX -male= XY
Homozygous alike alleles
Heterozygous different alleles (dominant vs recessive) - only 1 allele expressed -both alleles expressed and intermediate characteristic is displayed - each allele if fully expressed (black and white)
Genetic Abnormalities 1. genes that are inherited (most mental illnesses) 2. breakdown in genetic transmission; mutation
Phenylketonuria (PKU) -inherited recessive gene -occurs in 1 out of 10,000 births - inability to break down amino acid phenylalanine -mental disorder, nervous system disorders
Sickle cell anemia -inherited recessive gene -misshapen blood cells -lead to chronic anemia or death -predominantly in African Americans
Down Syndrome -mutation - extra chromosome on the 21st pair -increase in frequency with mothers age
Klinefelter's Syndrome -mutation -an extra X chromosome (XXY) -small testes, insufficient production of testosterone, sterile
Polygenetic Inheritance most personality, behavioral, and psychological aspects of an individual derive from multiple genes -inheritance of quantitative traits
Monozygotic twins -identical twins -single ovum divides and develops into two separate individuals
Dizygotic twins -fraternal twins -occurs when 2 or more ova are fertilized at the same time
Kinship Studies -compares the characteristics of family memebers a. twin studies-when dz and mz twins are compared b. adoption studies-compares children with their biological vs adoptive parents
Epigenesis or Epigenetics -heredity and environment interaction -consequences of genetic instructions depends on the environment -environment influences which genes are expressed
Created by: km112908