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PSY 273

Exam 1- ch1

What is Child Development? study of the patterns of growth, change, and stability that occur from conception through adolescence.
What are the 3 topical approaches to Child Development? 1. Physical Development 2. Social and Emotional Development 3. Cognitive Development
Physical Development... Includes puberty, height, weight, motor skills
Social and Emotional Development... includes interaction with others, family structure, temperament, and attachment
Cognitive Development... Includes brain development, intelligence, academic development. (mental processes)
Why study child development? 1. study human nature 2. shape social policy 3. be better parents
Preformationism The belief that adult like capacities, desires, interests, and emotions are present in early childhood. "mini" adults
Who are the 4 early philosophical views? Plato, Aristotle, Locke, and Rousseau.
Plato... believed children are born with innate knowledge of concrete objects and abstract concepts **innate
Aristotle... believed that knowledge is rooted in perceptual experiences.. sense tell you what the object is. **experience
Locke... viewed infants as tabula rasa, we are born with nothing. **experience
Rousseau... we are all born with innate sense of right an wrong, we look inward. **innate
2 influences on the study of child development... 1. industrial revolution- 1833 Factory Act: very first government regulation on child labor 2. Charles Darwin's Theory of evolution: evolutionary change in animals = age related changes in human behavior
3 Issues surrounding development... 1. sources of development 2. plasticity 3. continuity/discontinuity
Sources of development... nature vs nurture. the importance of twin studies
Plasticity... Critical Period: a period where an experience must occur in order for a behavior to develop. Sensitive Period: a period when organisms are more susceptible to certain stimuli in their environments
Continuity/Discontinuity... gradual or stage like (each stage has definite starting and ending point)
5 theories... 1. Biological perspective 2. psychodynamic perspective 3. learning perspective 4. cognitive-development perspective 5. contextual perspective
Biological Perspective Gessells Maturational Theory- development reflects the natural unfolding of a biological plan Ethological Theory- behaviors are adaptive and occur during critical periods (ex: crying)
Psychodynamic Perspective Sigmund Freud: development is determined by how well one resolves conflict (ID, Ego, Superego) Erikson Psychosocial Perspective- sequence of 8 developmental stages from birth to older adulthood, each definied by a unique crisis or challenge
Learning (Behaviorism) Perspective experience is important for development John Watson- shoed that emotional responses can be learned (ex: little albert with fear learned) Operant Conditioning: reinforcement and punishment
Operant Conditioning Reinforcement: positive-> promote a positive behavior. negative-> taking away something negative Punishment: decreases the likelihood of the behavior that it follows by either adding something aversive or withholding something pleasant
Cognitive-Developmental Perspective focus on how children think throughout development Piaget's 4 stages- sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete optional, formational operational.
Contextual Perspective development is influenced by a larger environmental system. Bronfenbrenner- microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem
Correlational Studies measures the extent which two factors are related. Positive Correlation, Negative Correlation, and Zero Correlation Third Variable Problem- correlation does not equal causation
Experiments used to study cause-effects relationships IV= what is manipulated DV= what is measured (DM)
Longitudinal Designs where the same person is observed repeatedly at different ages ADV: direct, not as many people DIS: expensive, long term, practice effects
Cross Sectional Design different people are measured at a single time (all in same year) ADV: less time, less expensive DIS: disconnected snapshot of development
Longitudinal-Sequential Designs different sequences of children are tested longitudinally ADV: provides info about continuity DIS: less info about continuity than longitudinal and more time consuming than cross sequential.
3 Methods of collecting data 1. naturalistic observation 2. structured observation 3. self-report
Naturalistic Observation -captures naturally occurring behavior (playground) -real world setting
Structured Observation -setting that the experimenter controls
Self-Report -childrens answer to a particular question of interest -written=questionnaire -oral= interview
Ethical Responsibilites IRB (internal review board) must decide to approve based on... 1. informed consent 2. minimized risks 3. importance of justice 4. debrief 5. keep results anonymous/confidential
Created by: km112908