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PSY412 Exam 1

Key People: Psychodynamic Sigmund Freud - Psychiatrist
Structural theory Psychodynamic - Topography of the mind - ID / EGO / SUPEREGO
Developmental theory - Psychodynamic Psychosexual Stages - Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
Psychodynamic - Unconscious theory Hidden mental processes that cause emotionally-significant behavior
Psychodynamic - Defense Mechanisms Anna Freud (dog drinking water from glass) Examples: Repression, Projection, Denial. Protects ID and unconscious
Psychodynamic First systematized school of psychotherapy
Focused on unconscious processes Pyshocdynamic
Interpersonal and Neo-Freudian Models - Associated people Adler - Fromm - Horney - Sullivan
Adler rejected stages of development, emphasized social interactions and said these cause cognitive maps that guide later interactions, conflicts lead to inferiority complex
Fromm aggression comes from society, not internal drive
Horney emphasized cultural factors like gender
Sullivan interpersonal theory, early relationships shape views of self and persist over the life span
Humanism Proponent Carl Rogers - Rejects catagories
Carl Rogers Therapy as self-directed and opportunity for growth
Humanism Assumption #1 People have actualizing tendency – automatically progress toward realizing full potential
Humanism Assumption #2 Innate sense of right and wrong
Humanism Assumption #3 Conditions of worth – restrictions that get in the way of actualizing potential
Humanism Therapy #1 Client-centered therapy - became critical in later therapy methods
Humanism Therapy #2 Nondirective – help to access own inner resources
Humanism Therapy #3  Therapist factors: empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness - Key aspects of later therapy models
Humanism Influence #1 Therapeutic alliance
Humanism Influence #2 Nondirective – help to access own inner resources
Humanism Influence #3 Motivational interviewing
Behaviorism People: Wolpe, Eysenck, Watson, Skinner
Wolpe treatment for war vets, based on lab research, yielded systematic desensitization
Eysenck said psychoanalysis is not effective and that therapy should be based in science
Watson can condition phobias
Skinner behavior can be modified based on learning principles
Behavior Theories #1 Focus on overt behavior and what maintains it
Behavior Theories #2 Classical Conditioning - neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance, the "unconditional stimulus. Drooling Dogs Bell
Behavior Theories #3 Operant conditioning (antecedents, behaviors, consequences – reinforcement increase behavior and punishment decreases it)
Behaviorisms Influence Behavior therapy, Systematic desensitization
Cognitive People Beck / Ellis
Cognitive theory Thoughts and beliefs influence emotions more than the events themselves
Cognitive Influences When combined with behavioral techniques, very popular and effective Empirically supported for several disorders
Competence Practice only within boundaries of their competence, based on education, training, professional experience
Informed consent Obtain consent making sure that the individual fully understands what is happening.
Disclosure / Duty to Warn Psychologists may disclose confidential information when mandated by law
Confidentiality Primary obligation to take reasonable precautions to protect confidential information.
Hippocrates 4 Humors
Socratic Questioning method of getting someone to realize answer to question that they already know
Plato 3 Levels of soul
Aristotle Talking helps people get better
Pope innocent 8 Malleus Malifacurum
Renaissance Brought about Humanists - potential for positive
Johan Weyer Humanism - mentally ill are not evil
Paracelsus Biological approach - behavior is result
18th-19th Century Asylums as storage facility
Reform movement Late 18th century, moral movement, removed chains, retreat as alternative to asylum
Benjamin Rush US father of psychiatry - tranquilizer chair - hot / cold baths
Dorthea Dix Campaigned for reformed human treatment, raised a lot of money, started 30 hospitals
Clifford Beers National committee for mental hygiene, Edjucate public / reduce stigma - was once committed to institution
Galton Measurement of individual differences- Social Darwinism + Eugenics. Measures for intelligence
Cattel individual differences in reactions times - brought standardization - measure everyone same way
Emergence of scientific Psychiatry Down: mental illness different than retardation, mental health issues can be caused by medical problems.
Kraepelin Catagorized mental illness, proponent of classification
Charcot Hypnotised Hysteria
Janet Found people reported hidden trauma under hypnosis
Witmer Research / Practitioner
Binet Testing - Psych clinic in france- norm referenced test
WWII Brought money to Psych
Stanford - Binet Best used on children
Weschler Wanted to measure adult intelligence - Adult IQ test
Projective Rorshac - vague stimulus - interepret
MMPI personality
Unique to Clinical Psych Testing
Post WWII Funding from Vets / Massive Growth in US
Shakow Developed what Clinical Psych should look like, Practice + Research
Miami Beach PSY.d proposed
California Professional Schools started
Salt lake city greater diversity in who was trained - research training for everyone - affiliation with university
Initial primary function of CP Assessment
Certification = Title
50% of APA CP
90% of APA pres CP
Violations of Ethics Terminate membership / Notify governing bodies / local ethics board
Client Centered Therapy Core components of todays therapy: Empathy / Unconditional Positive Regard / Genuineness - congruence
Client Centered Therapy showed more important to therapy than a specific style (cog / psycho / behav / etc. )
Created by: spicywafflefries