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GW Geography Terms

GranWood Trail Guide+ Geography Terms

a group or chain of islands clustered together in a sea or ocean. archipelago
a body of water that is partly enclosed by land (and is usually smaller than a gulf). bay
a man-made waterway used for transportation or irrigation. canal
a pointed piece of land that sticks out into a sea, ocean, lake, or river. cape
a narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water. a part of a river or harbor that is deep enough to let ships sail through. channel
the line or zone where the land meets the sea or some other large expanse of water coast
a low, watery land formed at the mouth of a river. It is formed from the silt, sand and small rocks that flow downstream in the river and are deposited delta
a very dry area desert
a part of the ocean (or sea) that is partly surrounded by land (it is usually larger than a bay). gulf
A sheltered part of a body of water deep enough to provide anchorage for ships. harbor
half of the terrestrial globe, divided into northern and southern by the equator or into eastern and western by some meridians, usually 0° and 180° hemisphere
a piece of land that is surrounded by water. island
the angular distance north or south from the equator to a particular location. latitude
a body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides. peninsula
flat lands that have only small changes in elevation. plain
a large, flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land. plateau
a large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean. river
open grasslands, usually with scattered bushes or trees, characteristic of much of tropical Africa savanna
a large body of salty water that is often connected to an ocean. may be partly or completely surrounded by land. sea
a wide inlet of the sea or ocean that is parallel to the coastline; it often separates a coastline from a nearby island. sound
a narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water. strait
an extensive grassy plain usually without trees steppe
A long, steep-sided valley on the ocean floor; they form when one tectonic plate slides beneath another plate at a subduction zone. trench
a mountainous vent in the Earth's crust; when it erupts, it spews out lava, ashes, and hot gases from deep inside the Earth. volcano
the height of an area, measured from sea level. altitude
an imaginary circle at latitude 66°30' S, around the south pole. Antarctic Circle
an imaginary circle at latitude 66°30' N, around the north pole. Arctic Circle
a ring (or partial ring) of coral that forms an island in an ocean or sea. atoll
a flat-topped rock or hill formation with steep sides. butte
a deep valley with very steep sides - often carved from the Earth by a river. canyon
a large hole in the ground or in the side of a hill or mountain. cave
a steep face of rock and soil. cliff
a small, horseshoe-shaped body of water along the coast; the water is surrounded by land formed of soft rock. cove
a hill or a ridge made of sand; they are shaped by the wind, and change all the time. dune
an imaginary circle around the earth, halfway between the north and south poles. equator
where a river meets the sea or ocean. estuary
a long, narrow sea inlet that is bordered by steep cliffs. fjord
a natural hot spring that occasionally sprays water and steam above the ground. geyser
a slowly moving river of ice. glacier
a raised area or mound of land. hill
a thick slab of floating ice that is next to land. ice shelf
a narrow strip of land connecting two larger landmasses; it has water on two sides. isthmus
a shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast and separated from the ocean by a strip of land or a sandbank. lagoon
a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides. lake
the angular distance east or west from the north-south line that passes through Greenwich, England, to a particular location. longitude
a type of freshwater, brackish water or saltwater wetland that is found along rivers, pond, lakes and coasts. marsh
a circular arc (a great circle) of longitude that meets at the north and south poles and connects all places of the same longitude. meridian
a land formation that has a flat area onthe top and steep walls; usually occur in dry areas. mesa
a very tall high, natural place on Earth - higher than a hill. mountain
a place in the desert that has water and is fertile. oasis
a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent. ocean
a map that shows an areas natural physical features, like mountains, lakes, and rivers. physical map
a map that shows cultural features, like the political boundaries of countries, states, provinces, and cities. political map
a small body of water surrounded by land; smaller than a lake. pond
a wide, relatively flat area of land that has grasses and only a few trees. prairie
a chain of mountains and/or high elevations. range
an undersea growth of coral near the surface of the water. reef
a topographic map that uses different colors or shades to indicate elevations. relief map
a man-made lake that stores water for future use. reservoir
a type of freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water. swamp
a map that represents elevations on it. topographic map
a stream or river that flows into a larger river. tributary
an imaginary line of latitude at 23°30' N. Tropic of Cancer
an imaginary line of latitude at 23°30' S. Tropic of Capricorn
the warm, equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. tropics
cold, treeless area; it is the coldest biome. tundra
When a river falls off steeply waterfall
a low place between mountains. valley
an area of land that is often wet; the soil in wetlands are often low in oxygen; many types including: swamp, slough, fen, bog, marsh, moor, muskeg, peatland, bottomland, delmarva, mire, wet meadow, riparian, etc. wetland
Created by: dstb