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Early Polyphony

2nd Exam Material Music History to 1750

12th Century Gothic Characteristics Emphasized height and spaciousness with soaring vaults, pointed arches, slender columns, large stain-glass windows, and intricate tracery.
Polyphony Music in which voices sing together in independent parts. At first, in church music it was a style of performance (accompanying chant with one or more added voices).
Counterpoint The combination of multiple independent lines
Harmony The regulation of simultaneous sounds
What are the four concepts that have distinguished Western music ever since the rise of written polyphony? Counterpoint, harmony, centrality of notation, and idea of composition as distinct from performance.
Organum Two or more voices singing different notes in agreeable combinations (treatises)
Parallel Organum Chant that has a melody that is the principal voice, and an organal voice that parallels the principal voice a fifth below
Mixed Parallel and Oblique Organum A combination of oblique motion (like a melody moving over a drone) with parallel motion. Method to avoid tritones a perfect fourth interval could create.
Where is an early example of how polyphony began to combine independent voices? When avoiding tritones, the original voice would move in unison with the principal voice at the end of a phrase. It emphasized cadences and phrasing of chant.
Guido of Arezzo Theorist who wrote Micrologus, allowed change of voices to create variety of organal voices (oblique and parallel motion) and began turning organum from performance to composition.
Winchester Troper The largest manuscript of tropes and liturgical music where organum voices were written down. Perhaps written by Wulfstan of Winchester but only had organal voices and neumes without exact pitches.
Free Organum (Note-against-note organum) Style of organum in which the organal voice has greater independence and prominence.
Ad organum faciendum (On Making Organum ca. 1100) Gave rules for improvising in the new style. Organal voice moves against chant in a mixture of contrary, oblique, parallel and similar motion.
Responsibility of Polyphony Polyphony was primarily the responsibility of soloists. Only a soloist could improvise a free organal line against a given chant (free and more recent organal styles)
Aquitanian Polyphony Ornate type of polyphony created in the 12th Century by French singers and composers. Most of the repertory comprises settings of versus, rhyming, scanning, accentual Latin poems (monophonically)
Discant Style of Aquitanian Polyphony Occurs when both parts move at about the same rate, with one to three notes in the upper part for each note of the lower voice. Lower voice (tenor) holds the principal melody.
Florid Organum Where the upper voice sings notegroups of varying lengths above each note of the lower voice (has melody) which moves much slowly.
Score notation Voices are written above the text, the top voice above the tenor, separated by a line. Both are in heighted neumes. No durations were indicated (how did singers coordinate timewise?)
Vox Organalis Added voice, usually newly composed, to create a polyphonic texture.
Ligatures Combinations of notegroups that indicated note length such as longs and breves.
Rhythmic Modes According to Johannes de Garlandia, there were six basix patters called "modes" that are identified by number and alter longs and breves. Not only a notational device, but gave shape to music that made it easier to memorize and recall.
Leoninus Associated with creating early Notre Dame polyphony. Was cannon, became a priest, paraphrased the first eight books of the Bible into verse.
Perotinus Associated with early Notre Dame polyphony.
Anonymous IV A treatise from 1285 gave credit to Leoninus and Perotinus. Called Leoninus an excellent composer of organum, and credits him compiling a Magnus liber organi (great book of polyphony).
Duplum The upper voice can sing expansive melismas over a serious of drones or long notes in the tenor in organum style.
Created by: jgk25