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Psych Testing Exam 1

Verificationist Criterion of Meaning a statement is meaningful if and only if it can be proven/disproven
Operational Definition define something by specifying the physical operations necessary to measure it
Psychological Test Criteria standardized procedures for sampling behavior describing it with categories scores operationalization of test
Standardization design administration scoring : objectivity, normative sample, criterion sample
Intelligence test measures ability in global areas to determine potential for scholastic work or certain occupations
Aptitude test measures capability for relatively specific task or skill
Achievement test measures degree of earning, success or accomplishment in a subject or task
Personality test measures traits, qualities, or behaviors that determine individuality
Interest test measures individual's preference for certain activities or topics to determine occupational choice
Attitude test describe and count frequency of a behavior, identifying causes and consequences of behavior
Neuropsychological test measures cognitive, sensory, perceptual, and motor performance to determine the extent, locus, and behavioral sequences of brain damage
Tests of maximum performance cognitive, speed vs power
Tests of typical performance objective vs projective
Tests as tools specific purposes use (intended and unintended) and misuse
Tests as products commercially marketed designed for popularity
Test uses decision making : clinical, counseling, educational, occupational research self-understanding/development
Test User Qualifications level a : nothing or bachelor's degree in related field level b : master's degree in psy/ed level c : doctorate and/or appropriate license
Ancient China imperial civil service exams formal written exams 200 BCE on law, military affairs, geography, agriculture, finance Confucian classics exams (1300-1906) preliminary, district, final exams -inspired british and american systems
Lavatar and Physiognomy 18th century based on the notion that we can judge the inner character of people from their outward appearance, especially the face
Gall and Phrenology 18th century detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities
Kraepelin schizophrenia vs bipolar disorder emphasized sensation, attention, memory
Esquirol mental illness vs mental retardation emphasize language phrases-single syllables-no speech
Fechner psychophysics study of the relationship between stimulus intensity and detection of stimulus
Wundt mental chronometry *founded first psychological lab in 1897 in Germany study of reaction time subtraction method
Ebbinghaus memory tests individual difference are error? nonsense syllables maintenance rehearsal of a list of words
Sir Francis Galton individual differences measuring intelligence: sensory acuity and motor speed public policy: eugenics methodical advances: correlation/regression, questionnaire technique
Kattell student of Wundt and Galton individual differences in mental chronometry battery of 10 mental tests demonstrated that test results could predict academic performance Wissler found negative results
Alfred Binet first modern intelligence test (1905)
Stern's ratio IQ mental age / chronological age
Spearman's factor analysis and g specific factors of primary mental ability
Terman's Standord-Binet test 1916 Terman and associates revised 1905 test
Yerkes army alpha and beta designed to segregate and eliminate mentally incompetent
Wechsler WAIS, WIS deviation IQ : test taker are compared to others of different as well as the same age
Binet-Simon Scale group children according to mental age, not chronological mental age / chronological age
Woodworth personal data sheet 116 yes/no questions
MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory contrasted responses of normal and psychiatrically disturbed subjects
Rorschach ink blots 10 participant revealed personality dimensions in what they described the inkblot as
Murray TAT : Thematic Apperception Test) study normal personality picture shown and subject told to make up a story, being as dramatic as possible NAch (need for achievement) NAff (need for affiliation)
descriptive statistics univariate : measure of central tendency (mean,median,mode), measures of dispersion (range,variance,standard deviation) bivariate : correlation coefficient, regression slope and intercept
inferential statistics testing null hypotheses with p-values
Interpreting r compare to other r statistics use reference standards : Cohen (1988) .1 small, .3 medium, .5 large testing for statistical significance squaring r (coefficient of determination) BESD (Binomial Effect Size Display)
BESD (50r+50) interpretation: what percentage of people who are above average on X will also be above average on Y
Z scores M=0, SD=1 how many standard deviations from average scores
T scores M=50, SD=10
IQ scores M=100, SD=15
SAT/GRE M=500, SD=100
ACT M=20, SD=5
Percentiles percent of population beneath your score
Stanines rated on a scale from 1-9
Developmental scores (bad) age and grade problems : interpolation/extrapolation, assumption of linearity and monotonicity, ordinal scale units, no implications for placement or expectations to hold kids to
Normative Samples purposive vs incidental/convenience sample stratified random sampling strategies (divide into groups then randomly sample
Norms by age, grade, other groups
Reliability coefficient the ratio of true score variance to the total variance of test scores error is large, value is small unreliable test 0.0, reliable test 1.0
Alternate form reliability similar content and cover same range and level of difficulty between two tests
Split Half reliability correlating the pairs of scores obtained from equivalent halves of a test administered only once to representative sample of examines
Interscorer reliability sample of tests is independently scored by two or more examiners and scores for pairs of examiners are then correlated
Cronbach's coefficient alpha arithmetic mean of all possible split half correlation measures internal consistency of split half's
Criterion-referenced test used to compare examinees' accomplishments to a predefined performance standard basic academic skills most items similarly difficult
Expectancy tables portray the established relationship between test scores and expected outcome on a relevant task
Classical test theory test scores result from the influence of factors that contribute to consistency and inconsistency X=T+e
Pxx / Ox2 correlation between two parallel tests
Rxx will be estimate of Pxx, have to use two tests
Created by: korourke13
Popular Psychology sets




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