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Human Geo Test 1

human geography examines the relationship between people and the places and spaces in which they live
culture shared traits relating to style of living, language, clothing, music, tradition. A set of learned behaviors, and symbolic systems transmitted through socialization.
culture region area where a strong concentration of one particular culture resides.
1. formal region (a region inhabited by people who have one or more cultural traits in common)
2. functional region (an area that functions as a unit politically, socially, or economically).
3. vernacular region a region perceived to exist by its inhabitants; based in the collective spatial perception of the population at large; bearing a generally accepted name or nickname “Dixie”)
culture complex group of traits that fit together in a particular culture for example (Cereal, Eagle, Individualism, US flag, moving out when 18, baseball; frozen food, car, frozen foods section at the grocery store)
cultural diffusion spread of elements of culture from the point of origin over an area.
barrier to diffusion- Different cultures and a lack of infrastructure, language, wealth, region (ex: UK/US have a low barrier to diffusion whereas US/Pakistan has a high barrier to diffusion)
Types of barriers to diffusion Permeable barrier: allowing part of the innovation to diffuse, but weaken or slow the spread. Absorbing barrier: completely halt diffusion, allowing no further progress.
receptivity to diffusion- similar cultural traits, necessary infrastructure, affluence-wealth
relocation diffusion: individuals or groups with a particular idea or practice migrate from one location to another, thereby bringing the idea or practice to their new homeland (ex: religions; Christianity with European settlers who came to America)
expansion diffusion ideas or practices spread throughout a population, from area to area, in a snowballing process, so that the total number of knowers or users and the area of occurrence increase. (planking)
contagious diffusion: wavelike spread of ideas in the manner of a contagious disease, moving throughout space without regard to hierarchies.
hierarchical diffusion Top to bottom diffusion. Often forced upon another culture. Example is King Henry the 8th instituting the church of England
stimulus diffusion type of expansion diffusion in which a specific trait fails to spread but the underlying idea or concept is accepted.
cultural landscape- artificial landscape; the visible human imprint on the land.
cultural ecology: interaction between culture and physical environments What is the difference between cultural ecology and nature-culture?? Nature-culture is the theme, cultural ecology is the interaction/study within the theme of Nature-Culture.
cultural interaction various elements within a culture
environmental determinism: belief that the physical environment is the dominant force shaping cultures and that humankind is essentially a passive product of its physical surroundings.
possibilism: physical environment offers a number of possible ways for a culture to develop
adaptive strategy The unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life--food, clothing, shelter, and defense
cultural core and periphery a concept based on the tendency of both formal and functional culture regions to consist of a core or node, in which defining traits are purest or functions are headquartered, and a periphery that is tributary and displays fewer of the defining traits.
topophilia the love of place. can get lost in urban areas
place image: : any attempt to represent a place with an association (ex: “Crisis in the Middle East” not “Crisis in Canada”)
ethnocentrism Ones personal belief that their social group is superior to another
map projection- how maps are projected- Mercator, azimuthal ect Show Distance, Direction and size
Cartography Study of maps
thematic map Maps with themes which focus on a particular trait or characteristic
choropleth map used a lot, current system of boundaries with different colors: single boundary contains a single value
isoline map weather map; same values within isolines: boundaries on map drawn with fluid lines
folk culture culture that has been transplanted to another area foreign to its origin (ex: Amish)
indigenous culture a culture that has always existed in a region and culture has remained largely untouched by outside influences (ex: Native Americans, Sami)
popular culture large heterogeneous societies permitting individualism, change, economy, profession, industry and has weak interpersonal ties.
folk architecture structures which were built by a folk society, using locally available raw materials, in a traditional manner and were not constructed with modern technologies or professional assistance.
Folk songs Songs without modern influence
curanderos Folk healers in Latin America, Physical and Spiritual Doctors
placelessness result from spread of popular culture, no sense of place, destroy uniqueness of place by standardizing.
place images Trying put a specific sentiment with a place- Middle East; the image that colors our perception of and beliefs about places or regions that we have never vistited
landscapes of consumption where few aspects of popular culture are more visually striking than the uniqueness of commercial malls
landscapes of leisure DISNEY WORLD. designed to entertain or gain tourism (ex: ski and beach resorts, golf courses)
Landscapes of Tragedy Example like a stone that says how many people died at this place. Thing which symbolizes tragedy. ex. cross on side of road
population density number of people in an area of land, people per square mile
population pyramid graph modeling the age/sex ratios of a population
age cohort group of people born throughout the same group of years (generation)
birth rate (BR)- number of births per thousand people per year
death rate (DR) annual number of deaths per 1000 persons in the population
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) number of children a woman will bear during her reproductive age
demographic transition Change in population growth that occurs when nations move from areas of High Birth Rate and high Death rate to low birth rate and low death rate
annual natural change of population Change in population growth Birth Rate Minus Death Rate; expressed either as a percent or a raw number
infant mortality Number of babies dying per 1000 births per year
“La revanche des berceaux” The Revenge of the Cradles in Quebec during the private revolution in the 60’s. Had large families to gainpower, it was a form of resistance against the English colonists of Canada. This shows how minorities resist majority by increasing their population.
Thomas Malthus cleric and economist from 18th century who published An Essay on the Principle of Population. He believed that human ability to multiply exceeds our ability to increase food production.Overpopulation will be our downfall.
Malthusianism Philosophy behind Thomas Malthus stating that human ability to multiply is greater than the earths means to support it
Created by: datencio2



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