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Psy Exam 1 (Ch 1,2,7

Psychology exam 1 over chapters 1,2 and 7

QuestionAnswer
What are the goals of psychology to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior
Willhelm Wundt Opened the first psychological laboratory and started the movement to make psychology a science
Functionalism An early psychological approach that focused on the function and purpose of behavior and consciousness (how and why)
Structuralism An early psychological approach that focused on analysis of immediate experience into basic elements (what)
William James An American philosopher, physician, and psychologist who was one of the leaders of functionalism
Sigmund Freud The neurologist whose theories evolved into what is psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy that focuses on unconscious motives and conflicts
The 6 Psychological Perspectives Biological, Learning, Cognitive, Sociocultural, Psychodynamic, and Evolutionary
Biological Perspective How our biological structure effects our behavior
Learning Perspective How environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions
Cognitive Perspective Explains thinking, memory, language, problem solving, and perceptions
Sociocultural Perspective How social and cultural contexts affect behavior
Psychodynamic Perspective How the unconscious affects us psychologically
Evolutionary Perspective How evolution affect behavior
Psychologist A therapist that goes to graduate school and cannot give medication
Psychiatrist A therapist that goes to medical school and can prescribe medications and tends to focus on the biological side
Basic Psychology To research psychological issues for knowledge for it's own sake
Applied Psychology To research psychological issues for knowledge or take knowledge from basic psychology to apply it to treatment or such
Theoretical Constructs Abstract phenomena, such as emotions or thoughts, that can only be inferred and not directly measurable
Operational Definitions Precise terms that can measure theoretical constructs
What are the parts of a good theory It is falsifiable, productive (makes more questions), and simple
Confirmation bias the tendency to only look for information that confirms one's own belief
What make psychology a science Precision,Skepticism, Empirical evidence, Risky predictions and openness
Representative sample A group of participants that accurately represent the population that is being researched
Case Study A in-depth study of an unique individual
Case study is useful when Ethical issues don't allow experimentation of topic, a starting point for the study, or when the topic is rare
Convenience Sample Taking a sample from a group that is available
Naturalistic Observation Researching a group by observing them in their natural day to day lives and not interfering
Narrative Analysis Describing what happened
Qualitative Observation Describing
Quantitative Observation Measuring
Population Complete group that researcher is interested in studying
Correlational Study A descriptive study that looks for a relationship between two phenomena
Correlational Studies cannot show cause and effect b/c there could be a third variable and or directional misconceptions
Independent Variable (IV) The variable that is manipulated
Dependent Variable(DV) The variable that is measured to see the effect of the IV
Quasi-Experimental Sample groups are decided based on how they are (divorced or married)
Participant Someone who had data collected from them in a study
Positive Correlation both variables increase.
Negative Correlation One variable increases while the other one decreases.
Random Assignment where the chance of an participant being in a group is not greater than any other participant.
Informed Consent The participant must understand the experiment and it's risks to be able to make an informed decision on whether or not they want to be part of the experiment.
Assent the child must agree to be in a experiment after the parents agree.
The IRB Process An Institutional Review Board reviews the ethics and decided if a proposed experiment is worth the risk.
Respondent Conditioning A neutral stimulus comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulate that already produces that response.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCR) A stimulus that naturally causes the Unconditioned Response.
Unconditioned Response (UCS) A response that is natually the result of a Unconditioned Stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A stimulus that is trained to have a certain response
Conditioned Response (CR) A response that is trained to result from a CS. The CR should be the same as the UCR used to train it.
Garcia Effect Some tastes and smells are more easily associated with poison while some sights and sounds are more easily associated with shock
Extinction a conditioned stimulus no longer elicits the conditioned response.
Spontaneous Recovery A extinct stimulus once again elicits the conditioned response
Stimulus Generalization What counts as a conditioned stimulus to cause a conditioned response broadens.
Stimulus Discrimination A specific thing is the conditioned stimulus for the conditioned response.
Higher order conditioning A neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus thought association with an established conditioned stimulus.
Operant Conditioning The consequences of a behavior determine the likelihood that the behavior will or will not be performed in the future.
Reinforcement Increases a behavior
Punishment Decreases a behavior
Positive Reinforcement Add something to increase a behavior
Negative Reinforcement Take away something to increase a behavior
Positive Punishment Add something to decrease a behavior.
Negative Punishment take away something to decrease a behavior.
Radical Behaviorism Only direct contact with a response teaches a response.
Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Signal that a reinforcer is available.
Bandura's Social-Cognitive Theory of Observational Learning We learn from watching other people.
Vicarious reinforcement Learning or strengthening a behavior by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of the behavior .
Modeling A behavior modification technique that involves observing the behaviors of others and participating with them in performing the desired behavior
Created by: 713232445