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CHAPTER 6 - Consciousness

consciousness awareness of one's own mental activity, including thoughts, feelings, and sensations
attention the process by which the individual focuses awareness on certain contents of consiousness while ignoring others
perception without awareness the unconcious perception of stimuli that normally exceed the absolute threshold but fall outside our focus of attention
subliminal psychodynamic activation the use of subliminal messages to stimulate unconscious fantasies
biological rhythms repeating cycles of physiological changes
circadian rhythms twenty-four-hour cycles of physiological changes, most notably the sleep-wake cycle
pineal gland an endocrine gland that secretes a hormone that has a general tranquilizing effect on the body and that helps regulate biological rhythms
phase advance shortening the sleep-wake cycle, as occurs when traveling from west to east
phase delay lengthening the sleep-wake cycle, as occurs when traveling from east to west
REM sleep the stage of sleep associated with rapid eye movements, an active brainwave pattern, and vivid dreams
NREM sleep the stages of sleep not associated with rapid eye movements and marked by relatively little dreaming
insomnia chronic difficulty in either falling asleep or staying asleep
sleep apnea a condition in which a person awakens repeatedly in order to breathe
narcolepsy a condition in which an awake person suffers from repeated, sudden, and irresistible REM sleep attacks
dream a storylike sequence of visual images, usually occuring during REM sleep
nightmare a frightening dream occurring during REM sleep
night terror a frightening NREM experience, common in childhood, in which the individual may suddenly sit up, let out a bloodcurdling scream, speak incoherently, and quickly fall back to sleep, yet usually fails to recall it on awakening
lucid dreaming the ability to be aware that one is dreaming and to direct one's dreams
manifest content sigmund freud's term for the verbally reported dream
latent content sigmund freud's term for the true, though disguised, meaning of a dream
activation-synthesis theory the theory that dreams are the by-products of the cortex's attempt to make sense of the spontaneous changes in physicological activity generated by the brain stem during REM sleep
hypnosis an induced state of consciousness in which one person responds to suggestions by another person for alterations in perception, thinking and behavior
hypermnesia the hypnotic enhancement of recall
posthypnotic suggestions suggestions directing people to carry out particular behaviors or to have particular experiences after leaving hypnosis
dissociation a state in which the mind is split into two or more independent streams of consciousness
neodissociation theory the theory that hypnosis induces a dissociated state of consciousness
hidden observer ernest hilgard's term for the part of the hypnotized person's consciousness that is not under the control of the hypnotist but is aware of what is taking place
age regression a hypnotic state in which the individual apparently behaves as she or he did as a child
psychoactive drugs chemicals that induce changes in mood, thinking, perception, and behavior by affecting neuronal activity in the brain
depressants psychoactive drugs that inhibit activity in the central nervous system
ethyl alcohol (ethanol) a depressant found in beverages and commonly used to reduce social inhibitions
barbiturates depressants used to induce sleep or anesthesia
opiates depressants, derived from opium, used to relieve pain or to induce a euphoric state of consciousness
stimulants psychoactive drugs that increase central nervous system activity
caffeine a stimulate used to increase mental alertness
nicotine a stimulant used to regulate physical and mental arousal
amphetamines stimulants used to maintain alertness and wakefulness
cocaine a stimulant used to induce mental alertness and euphoria
hallucinogens psychoactive drugs that induce extreme alterations in consciousness, including visual hallucinations, a sense of timelessness, and feelings of depersonalization
LSD a hallucinogen derived froma fungus that grows on rye grain
synesthesia the process in which an individual experiences sensations in one sensory modality that are characteristics of another
cannabis sativa a hallucinogen derived from the hemp plant and ingested in the form of marijuana or hashish
entactogens a new category of psychoactive drugs that have unique effects intermediate to those associated with hallucinogens and stimulants
Created by: Jessica C
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