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Children's Developmental Psychology

Child Development Field of study in which researchers from many disciplines work to describe and understand the important changes that take place as children grow through childhood
Physical Development Component of development related to growth in size, strength, and muscle coordination
Cognitive development Component of development related to changes in how children perceive, think, remember, solve problems, and communicate
Socioemotional development Component of development related to changes in how children interact with other people (e.g., family members, peers, and playmates) and manage their emotions
Nature The biological forces (genetics) that govern development
Nurture the environmental conditions and supports that affect development
Behavior Genetics Field of study that compares the influence of genetics (nature) to the influence of learning and the environment (nurture), and examines how these forces interact to influence development
reciprocal relationship the idea that people influence children and their development, and children make choices and influence other people. Effects go both ways Example - a baby crying for water/food
Theory An explanation of how facts fit together, allowing us to understand and predict behavior
Hypotheses specific inferences drawn from theories; researchers test hypotheses by collecting scientific observations
Psychoanalitic Theories Theories that focus on the structure of personality and how the conscious and unconscious portions of the self influence behavior and development Sigmund Freud
id below the level of conscious awareness and represents the primitive sexual and aggressive instincts that humans inherited through evolution
ego the rational branch of personality; it tries to negotiate realistic ways to satisfy the id's impulses
superego represents the moral branch of personality and contains our ethical principles, ideals, and conscience
Psychosocial theory Erik Erikson composed of 8 stages, and was a revision to Freuds Psychoanalytical theory. Erikson's theory focused more on healthy child development, especially the development of ego identity.
Cognitive Developmental Theory Jean Piaget a theory that focuses on how children adjust their own understanding as they explore and learn about the world
Sociocultural theory Lev Vygotsky A theory that focuses on how language and culture influence the growth of thought in child
Ethology Konrad Lorenz - imprinting - goslings experiment An area of study focusing on the adaptive significance and survival value of behaviors
Neuropsychology An area of study that focuses on the brain and nervous system, often involving technologies such as CT scans, PET, and MRI
Ecological Systems Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner Theory focusing on the complex set of systems and interacting social layers that can affect children's development. Micro - family teachers Meso - School home Exo - Work government Macro - values laws customs Chrono - overall
Dynamic systems theory No direct author Theories that use models from mathematics and physics to understand complex systems of development
scientific method process by which researchers test hypotheses by making systematic observations
descriptive methods research methods that describe a behavior of interest, such as how often it occurs and under what conditions
correlational method research method that measures the degree to which two or more variables are related or associated
experiment mothod by which researchers systematically manipulate an independent variable to determine if it causes a difference in a dependent variable
cross-sectional method a type of research design that studies development by comparing groups of children of different ages against one another at the same point it time
longitudinal method a type of research design that studies development by measuring or observing the same children across time as they grow and mature
Ethics in Research with Children Risk Vs. Benefit = gain must be more worth the process Nonharmful procedures = can't be harmful Informed consent = explanation of process Unforeseen consequences = must correct any wrongs Confidentiality Implications of research
chromosome strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules that contain the genetic codes.
DNA two strands of molecules that twist around each other like a spiral staircase. Connected by a seris of nucleotide bases (adrenaline, thymine, guanine, cytosine)
Gene a segment of DNA that provides an instruction for a particular structure, function, or trait
Human Genome Project A multinational effort by governments and scientists to map the 3 billion pairs of nucleotide bases and the genes contained in human chromosomes
fertilization the union of the father's sperm cell with the mother's egg. yielding one fertilized cell with a unique combinations of genes along 46 chromosomes - 23 from father and mother
allele an alternative version of a gene; alleles operate in pairs across matched chromosomes
zygote term used to refer to the human organism after the fertilized egg cell begins to divide
monozygotic (MZ) twins Identical twins. These twins form when one zygote divides to make two zygotes
dizygotic (DZ) twins Fraternal twins. These twins form when two eggs are fertilized by two different sperm cells
sex chromosomes the 23rd pair of chromosomes (in humans), specialized to determine the sex of the child and other characteristics, M=XY F=XX
dominant-recessive ralationship relationship between genes in which the dominant allele will govern a particular trait, and the recessive alllele will be repressed. To express a recessive trait, the individual needs to inherit two recessive alleles - one on each chromosome
X-linked (Sex-linked) traits Traits that differ in rate of occurence between males and females, caused by dominant and recessive alleles on the X and Y Chromosomes
Down Syndrome Trisomy 21, a genetic disorder that occurs when there is an extra 21st chromosome. Lower IQ, Facial defects, heart problems, and shortened life span are characterisitic problems
Abnormalities in sex Chromosomes XXY - Klinefelter - small testicles; learning problems, shyness XYY - Tall Stature/learning problems Trisomy X or XXX - Tall stature Turner Syndrome or X - Short, broad shouldered... etc., XX - sex reversal in males (XY) XY Females - Sex reversal
ultrasonography (ultrasound) images of the fetus inside the mother's womb produced by sound waves. Ultrasound can be used to help physicians monitor fetal growth and detect physical defects
Amniocentesis Procedure used to detect chromosomal and genetic abnormalities in the fetus. A needle is inserted through the mother's abdomen and uterus and into the amniotic sac, and fetal cells are withdrawn from the amniotic fluid
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Procedure to detect chromosomal and genetic abnormalities in the fetus. A catheter (tube) is inserted into the uterus and cells are taken from the chorionic layer of the placenta around the fetus.
GxE interaction interacting effects of genetics and the environment on the development of traits and characteristics
genotype the gentic code a person inherits
phenotype observable trait a person shows, resulting in part from the genotype they inherit
range of reaction the range of possible phenotypes that exist for a particular genotype
canalization genetic limits on the effects of the environment. In experiential canalization, in contrast, it is the environment that limits the expression of genes
niche-picking the tendency to pick activites and environements that fit with our genetic predispositions
probabilistic epigenesis the likelihood that specific environmental conditions will activate specific genes that lead to particular traits or behavioral outcomes
heritability a mathematical estimate of the degree of genetic influence for a given trait or behavior
shared environment experiences and aspects of the environment that are common across all individuals who are living together
nonshared environment experiences and aspects of the environemt that differ across people
twin studies Comparisons between measurements of identical and fraternal twins, used to estimate the genetic contribution to traits and characteristics
adoption studies Comparisons between measurements of children and their adoptive and biological parents used to estimate the genetic contribution to traits and characteristics
prenatal development development of the organims that occurs before its birth
ovulation release of an egg from the female ovary
differentiation process that occurs during cell division in which each new cell, as it divides, is committed to becoming a particular structure and serving a particular function
germinal stage the first stage of prenatal development, from conception to 2 weeks
implanation process by which the zygote embeds itself into the inner ling of the mother's uterus
embryonic stage the second stage of prenatal development, weeks 3-8. The embryo forms tissue representing every system and major part of the body
miscarriage naturally occuring termination of a pregnancy before the baby is born alive
Cephalocaudal pattern pattern of growth whereby areas in the head and upper body tend to form and grow before the areas in the lower body
proximodistal pattern pattern of growth whereby areas closer to the center of the body tend to form and grow before the areas toward the extremities
critical periods segments of time during which structures are first forming and are most vulnerable to damage
organogenesis Organ formation: process whereby each major organ and system in the body differentiates within the embryo
fetal stage the third and final stage of prenatal development, lasting from 8 weeks after conception until birth
teratogen any substance or condition that might disrupt prenatal development and cause birth defects
premature refers to babies who are born earlier or smaller than they should be
preterm birth births that occur before 37 weeks of gestation
low birth weight Weight less than 5.5 pounds at birth
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) A syndrome of birth defects cause by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Includes growth deficiencies head and facial malformations, and central nervous system dysfunction
Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) Individual or multiple birth defects caused by prenatal exposure to alchohol. Lowered IQ, hyperactivity, growth deficiencies, and physical malformations can exist alone or in combinations but not in a way that indicates FAS
Cesarean section Surgical procedure in which the baby is removed through an incision made through the mother's abdomen and into the uterus
prepared childbirth classes or training that typically provides education about labor and delivery, selective relaxation and controlled breathing, and the assistance of a labor coach to help mothers with childbirth
malpresentation improper positioning of the fetus in the mother's uterus
fetal distress a condition that indicates that the fetus is at risk; usually includes a sudden lack of oxygen, a change in fetal heart rate, and or a change in fetal respiration
apgar test a breif assessment of the newborn conducted at 1 and 5 minutes after birth; used to identify newborns who are at risk and need medical attention
infant mortality deaths that occur between birth and one year of age
Created by: shossle