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MSCPsychology Test 1

QuestionAnswer
structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the sructural elements of the human mind
functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish.
behaviorism the view that psychology (1) whould be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinkin, memeory, and language).
humanistic psychology historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
psychology the science of behavior and mental processes.
nature-nurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reporduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
levels of analysis the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
biopsychosocial approach an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychologiacl, an social-cultural levels of analysis.
basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
applied research scientific study that aims tosolve practical problems.
counseling psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) an in achieving greater well-being.
clinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry a branch of mediciine dealin with psychologial disorders; practiced by physicicans who sometimes provide mediacl (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
SQ3R
hindsight bias the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
critical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory.
operational definition a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationaly defined as what intelligence test measures.
replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with differnt participants in different situations, to see whather the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particaluar group, usually by questioning a reprsentative, random sample of the group.
population all the cases in a group being studied, from withich samples may be drawn.
random sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
naturalistic observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
correlation coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two things
scatterplots a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. Little scatter=high correlation
illusory correlation the perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulatse one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process(dependent). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other factors.
random assignment assigning participants to experimental control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
double-blind procedure an experiment procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants received treatment or placebo.
placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
experimental group in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
control group in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatmen; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whos effect is being studied.
dependent variable the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
mode the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
mean the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of the scores
median the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
range the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
normal curve a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.
statistical significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
neuron a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
sensory neurions neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
motor neurons neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
interneurons neurons within the brains and spinal cord that communicates internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and moter outputs.
dendrite the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
axon the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
myelin sheath a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
action potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down axon.
biological psychology a branch of psychology concerned with the lins between biology and behavior. Fields include: behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticiests, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.
threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether neural impulse occurs
reuptake a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
endorphins "morphine within"-natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
nervous system the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS) the sensory and motor neuronss that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
nerves bundled axons that for neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
somatic nervous system the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
autonomic nervous system the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs(such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
sympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
parasympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
reflex a simple, autonomatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
endocrine system the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
hormones chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
adrenal glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones(epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
pituitary gland the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
lesion tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
electroencephalogram (EEG) an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
PET (positron emission tomography) scan a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.
fMRI (functional MRI) a technique for revealing bloodflow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function.
brainstem the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enter s the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
medulla the base of the brainstem; controls of the heartbeat and breathing.
reticular formation a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important controlling arousal.
thalamus the brain's sensory swithchboard, located on top of the brianstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
cerebellum the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory inpurt and coordinating movement output and balance.
limbic system neural system(hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
amygdala two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.
hypothalamus a neural structure lying below(hypo)the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activites (eating, drinkin, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
cerebral cortex the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
glial cells (glia) cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
frontal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements.
parietal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
occipital lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head;includes areas that recieve information from the visual fields
temporal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
motor cortex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
sensory cortex area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
association areas areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering, thinking, and speaking.
plasticity the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building pathways based on experience.
corpus callosum the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
split brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them.
memory the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
encoding the processing of information into the memory system-for example, by extracting meaning.
storage the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage.
sensory memory the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
short-term memory activated memory holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
long-term memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system, includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
working memory a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-termed memory.
automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
rehearsal the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
spacing effect the tendency for distrubuted study or practice to yield better long-termed retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
visual encoding the encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
semantic encoding the encoding of meaning, including meaning of words.
imagery mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
chunking organizing items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
echoic memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled withing 3 or 4 seconds.
long-term potentiation (LTP) an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
amnesia the loss of memory
implicit memory retention independence independence of conscious recollection(also called nondeclarative memory)
explicit memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" (also called declarative memory)
hippocampus a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
recall a measure in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
recognition a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
relearning a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
priming the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations, in memory.
deja vu that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsiously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
mood-congruent memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
proactive interference the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
retroactive information the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
repressions in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
misinformation effect incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (also called source misattribution).It, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
Created by: 100001215904540