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Radiation Protection

Radiation Protection Ch 2 glossary

QuestionAnswer
Absorbtion Transference of electromagnetic energy to the atoms
Absorbed Dose The amount of energy absorbed per unit mass
Attenuation The reduction in the number of primary photons in the x-ray through absorbtion and scatter as the beam passes through the patient in it's path
Auger Effect When an inner electron is removed from an atom in a photoelectric interaction, causing an inner shell vacancy, the energy liberated when this vacancy is filled, instead of emerging from the atom as flourescent radiation, can be transferred to another elec
Characteristic Photon The released energy that is carried off in the form of a photon
Characteristic X-ray Energy that is directly related to the shell structure of the atom from which it was emitted
Coherent Scattering A relatively simple process that actually results in no loss of energy as x-rays scatter
Compton Scattered Electrons or secondary or recoil electrons Possesses excess kinetic energy and is capable of ionizing other atoms
compton Scattering Also known as (incoherent, inelastic or modified scattering) is responsible for most of the scatted radiation produced during radiologic procedures
Contrast Media Positive contrast media consist of solutions containing elements having a higher atomic number than surrounding soft tissue or that are either ingested or injected into the tissues or structures to be visualized
Effective Atomic Number (Zeff) Is a composite number for many different chemical elements comprising material, with high content by weight (14.7%) of calicum(Z=20) undergoes more photoelectric absorbtion than equal mass of soft tissue and air.
Exit or Image-Formation Photons Only two photons that emerge from the tissue and strike the radiographic image receptor below it.
Flourecsent Radiation Those generate from photoelectric interactions within human tissue are low enough in energy that they are predominatly absorbed within the body
Flourecsent Yield Refers to the number of x-rays emitted per inner shell vacancy
Mass Density The density in different body structures also influences attenuation. (measured in grams per cubic centimeter)
Milliampere-Seconds (mAs) The product of electron tube current and the amount of time in seconds that the x-ray tube is activated
Pair Production In pair production the incoming x-ray strongly interacts with the nucleus of an atom of the irradiated biologic tissue and disappears. Production does not occur unless the energy of the incident x-ray photons is at least 1.022 MeV
Peak Kilovoltage (kVp) The highest energy level of photons in the x-ray beam
Photodisintergration A high energy photon collides with the nucleus of an atom, which directly absorbs all the photons energy (occurs at 10 Mev)
Photoelectric Absorbtion The most important mode of interaction between photons and atoms of the patients body for producing useful patient images. an interaction between x-ray photons an inner shell electron tightly to an atom. Occurs 23 to 150 kVp
Photoelectron An ejected orbital electron that possesses kinetic energy equal to the energy of the incident photon less the binding energy of the electron shell
Primary Radiation The emerging x-ray photon beam
Radiographic Contrast Subject contrast is the ratio of radiation intensities transmitted through different areas of the component being evaluated
Radiographic Density Degree of overall blackening on a radiographic image that has been completed and vice versa
Radiographic Fog Additional radiographic density
radiographic Image Receptor a device that changes the x-ray beam into a visible image. An image receptor may be a radiographic film and cassette, a phosphorescent screen or a special detector placed in a table or upright bucky diaphragm (used in direct digital radiography).
Small- Angle Scatter is a fundamental method for structure analysis of materials, including biological materials. Small-angle scattering allows one to study the structure of a variety of objects such as solutions of biological macromolecules, nanocomposites, alloys, synthetic
Created by: alexdar46