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Psychopharm Neuro

Psychopharmacology (UNIT 4)

Psychopharmacology study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior
What is a drug? Exogenous/ not necessary for normal function/ alters the functions of cells in low amnts
A drug must Have an effect (s)/ Have a site (s) of action
Pharmacokinetics time course and movement of a drug
Processes of pharmacokinetics Absorption/Distribution/Metabolism/ Elimination
oral admin primary/ 1st gastrointestinal(liver before blood)upper int by passive diffusion/lipid solubility (membranes)
psychoactive drugs weak acids/very lipid sol/ absorbed quickly/trapped in blood plasma/75 percent in 3 hrs/ less control
inhalation recreation/quick/lungs are richly vascularized/straight to the brain/
mucous membranes (nose and mouth) cocaine
injections iv/im/sc
iv directly to brain/good control of speed,volume, concentration/dangerous
im absorbed quickly in muscles
sc rapid/ can cause irritation
distribution circ system quickly
total blood volume is circulated every minute
side effects only a small amnt is in contact with receptors
drug also binds to protein (less effective) & fat (long-term storage)
capillary walls drug leaves through tiny pores
BBB no pores/lipid sol
placental membrane lipid sol cross easily
different membrane different lipid solubility
one membrane neuron/ mitochondria
several layers skin/ vagina/placenta
single layer intestines
selective permeability det by diffusion/ pH/ chem comp of drug/ size
metabolism in the liver
metabolites less lipid sol/ stay in bloodstream
cytochrome p enzyme family involved in drug metabolism (12)
changes in activity of cyps some drugs inactivate/grapefruit juice
alcohol does not have a half-life/ straight line down
elimination kidney/ drug becomes more water sol as metabolized/ trapped in kidney and passed
pharmacodynamics molecular (receptor)
receptor specificity best chemical fit/ influences effectiveness
dose-response curve s- shape
potency amnt needed for effect
efficacy max effect attainable
variability ind diff
ED-50 half of subjects see effect
LD-50 half of subjects die
margin of safety LD 50 minus ED 50
therapeutic index ratio of ED 50 to LD 50
higher index safer drug
why drugs vary in effectiveness diff sites if action/ diff affinities for rec
alcohol and benzo or mari very depressant
alcohol and other drugs alcohol opens BBB/ aspartame =neurotoxin
alcohol and cocaine increased half-life
alcohol and sex increases risky behavior/ unwanted pregnancy
drug toxicity allergies/ liver enzymes/kidney damage
Created by: olgakaczma