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AP Psychology Unit 3

AP Psychology vocabulary for Unit 3 at RCHS

Underestimating situational influences when evaluating the behavior of someone else. Fundamental Attribution Error Ex. He swerved into my lane because he is a jerk.
People usually attribute others' behavior to either their internal dispositions or their external situations. Attribution Theory N/A
Attributing others' behaviors to disposition but your own behaviors (even the same behaviors) to situational factors. Actor-Observer Bias He swerved into my lane because he is a jerk, but I swerved into the next lane because I was trying to avoid an animal in the road.
Crediting your own success to disposition, but attributing your own failures to situation. Self-Serving Bias Ex. I won the game because I'm talented. I failed the test because the questions were unfair.
The discomfort caused by holding two contradictory beliefs or performing an action contradictory to our beliefs. This theory states that we are motivated to reduce this uncomfortable feeling by changing our beliefs to match our actions. Cognitive Dissonance Ex. Asch Conformity study
The tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger one. Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon Ex. People's Temple, Korean war communists, cheating
Subjects who play a role often begin to "become" the role. Role playing Ex. Zimbardo's prison study
The tendency to find something more attractive if you have to work hard to achieve it. Effort Justification Ex. Aronson and Mill's "Sexual behavior in animals" study
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. Conformity Ex. Asch Conformity study
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. Normative social influence Ex. Clapping when others clap and other social norms
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality. Informational social influence Ex. Robert Baron's police lineup study
Persuasion in which the person ponders the content and logic of message. Central Route Ex. Buying a car because it gets good gas mileage
Persuasion in which the individual is encouraged to not look at the content of the message, but at the source. Peripheral Route Ex. Credibility of the source or music played with an ad
The presence of others enhance performance at a well-rehearsed or easy skill. Social Facilitation Ex. Races, speech
The presence of others diminishes performance due to diffusion of responsibility. Social Loafing Ex. Group project
The presence of others makes one act in unrestrained ways. Deindividuation Ex. Fans at tailgates/sports events
Group discussion strengthens a group's dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction. Group Polarization Ex. Extreme Republicans and Democrats
Members of a group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision. Groupthink Ex. Bay of Pigs fiasco
When a person's beliefs about others (or themselves) leads one to act in ways that appear to confirm the belief. Self-Fulfilling prophecy Ex. Substitute teachers, parenting
The theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. Scapegoat Theory Ex. The Nazis need someone to blame, "If the Jew did not exist, we should have to invent him"
The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. Just-World phenomenon Ex. Believing Jews deserved the Holocaust
The principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression. Frustration-aggression principle Ex. Frustration at an aggressive cue, such as a gun, can cause anger and aggression
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Social Trap Ex. The M&M vs Bag game, trucking game
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. Mere Exposure effect Ex. Our face in the mirror, attractive girl in class experiment
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. Passionate love Ex. A new relationship
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. Companionate love Ex. A successful marriage
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. Equity Ex. Shared decision-making
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. Self-Disclosure Ex. Dreams, proud and shameful moments
Unselfish regard for he welfare of others. Altruism Ex. James Harrison's death while searching for survivors in the fire after the 1999 plane crash
The presence of others decreases the likelihood that we will respond, primarily because we do not take responsibility and assume someone else will do it. Bystander Effect Ex. Kitty Genovese murder, epileptic seizure experiment
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Social Exchange theory Ex. Donating blood for reduced guilt
The social expectation that people will respond to each other in kind - returning benefits for benefits and responding with either indifference or hostility to harm. Reciprocity Norm Ex. Let someone borrow your pen and they will let you borrow their pen when you need it
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. Superordinate Goals Ex. Sherif's boy scout study
A strategy designed to decrease international tensions. GRIT (Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction) Ex. Ending the Cold War, establishing 1993 atmospheric test-ban treaty
The presence of others diminishes performance at difficult tasks. Social Inhibition Ex. Tests you don't study for
Created by: bsmithabc