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wccvettech cardiovas

wccvettech cardiovasular terms

mediastinum between the left and right lungs
pericardium epithelial tiss covering the outside
parietal pericardium outermost and forms loose sac around the heart
visceral percardium (epicardium) inntermost and is directly attached to heart muscle
myocardium cardiac muscle layer
septum myocardial wall that seperates the right and left of heart
endocardium epithelial lining of the inside heart chambers
unidirectional valves keep blood moving one way
A-V atrioventricular valves
right A-V tricuspid
left AV bicuspid or mitral
chordae tendinae free edges of the AV valves connection
papillary muscles chordae tendinae attached
semilunar valves ventricles are separated from major blood vessels
pulmonary semiluner valve between RV and pulmonary artery
aortic semilunar valve between LV and the aorta
circulatory system aorta- arteries - arterioles - capillaries - venules - veins - vena cava
systemic circulation aorta - arterioles - capillaries-venules-veins-vena cava
vena cava largest vein in the body
aorta largest artery in the body
right heart circulation vena cava - RA- rAV - RV -pulmonary semilunar valve - pulmonary artery
pulmonary circulation pulmonary artery - pulmonary arterioles - pulmonary capillaries -alveolus
pulmonary exchange simple diffusion capillaries to alveoli O2; capillaries to alveoli CO2
Left heart circulation pulmonary veins - LA - LAV- LV - Aortic semilunar valve - aorta
cardiac conduction S-A node - A-V node - Bundle of His - purkinje fibers
conduction myofibers purkinje fibers
A-V bundle His
A-V node atrioventricular node
Systole is the contraction of the chambers of the heart, driving blood out of the chambers
diastole The time period when the heart is in a state of relaxation and dilatation (expansion).
Systolic pressure systolic pressure is specifically the maximum arterial pressure during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
diastolic pressure diastolic pressure is specifically the minimum arterial pressure during relaxation and dilatation of the ventricles of the heart. Diastole is the time when the ventricles fill with blood.
heart sounds caused by closing of valves
lub AV valves close
dub semilunar valves close
ECG movement of electrical impulse thru the heart
P wave small upward deflection; depolarization of the atria
QRS complex large upward deflection; depolarization of the ventricles
T wave small upward/downward deflection; repolarization of the ventricles
cardiac output vol of blood pumped out of the heart in one minute
blood pressure blood pushes against the walls of the vessels
resistance force that opposes the flow of blood
vasoconstriction greater resistance
vasodilation lower resistance
mean arterial pressure blood in the arteries over the entire cardiac cycle
dog bp 120/70 sys/dias
cat bp 140/90 sys/dias
Horse bp 130/95 sys/dias
viscosity thickness of the blood
Hepatic Portal circuloation go thru the hepatic portal vein to the liver and returns to the heart via hepatic vein
Fetal circulation bypass lungs, digestive tract, kidneys
ductus venosus umbilical vein to the vena cava bypassing liver
foramen ovale opening in septum between RA and LA bypass pulmonary circulation/closes after birth
ductus arteriosus vess conn pulmonary artery an aorta, 2nd route for bypassing pulmonary circ; becomes the ligamentum arteriosum after birth
lympatic circulation lymph filtration, removal of foreign particles, lymphocytes, absorb and transport of fats, return of intercellular fluids
cardiovascular disease weakness or exercise intolerence, syncope, arrhythmia, pulmonary congestion, ascites, edema
syncope loss of consciousness due to lack of blood flow to brain
arrhythmia abnormality in the rate rhythm or site of origin of the heart impulse
pulmonary congestion cough, dyspnea, crackles, cyanosis
dyspnea Difficult or labored breathing; shortness of breath
ascites fluid accumulation in abdominal cavity
edema fluid accumulation in intercellular spaces of tissue
PExam MM, CRT, Jugular veins (distension, pulsing > 1/3) Pulse
Cardiac Ausculation stethoscope, heart sounds, rate, rhythm, pulmonary sounds
Lub 2 a-v valves at the same time
Dub closure of the pulmonic and aortic semilunar valves
Murmurs grading I - VI
murmurs sounds caused by turbulence in the blood stream; leaking heart valves, enlarged hearts
machinery murmur patent ductus arteriosus (ductus arteriosus does not close at birth
ECG measure the depolarization of the heart
radiography 2 views; DV and Right lateral
Echocardiography is a diagnostic test which uses ultrasound waves to make images of the heart chambers, valves and surrounding structures
Heart failure cardiac arrest
valve disease mitral usual
thyrotoxicosis hyperthyroidism
heartworm disease blocks vessels
infection bacteria; virus
dietary carnitine (responsible for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria.) taurine (Taurine is essential for cat health, as a cat cannot synthesize the compound) taurine deficiency can cause feline dilated cardiomyopathy
hypertension high blood pressure
Sinus arrhythmia bradycardia tachycardia
DCM dialted cardiomyopathy; common in large breed dogs, loss of contractility of heart muscle, chambers become dilated
thromboemblosim Formation in a blood vessel of a clot (thrombus) that breaks loose and is carried by the blood stream to plug another vessel. intravascular
embolism The obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign substance or a blood clot blocking the vessel. Something travels through the bloodstream, lodges in a vessel and plugs it. distall
aneurysm An aneurysm is a localized widening (dilatation) of an artery, vein, or the heart.
HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cats, walls of heart become less pliable, left ventricle usual, decrease cardiac output, secondary to hyperthyroidism
valve disease one of the heart valves, decresase of cardiac output, CHF, mitral in dogs
endocarditis inflammation of the heart muslce or valves, bacteria from blood stream infects area with defect
congenital common in dogs, persistent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, pulmonic or arotic stenosis, tetralogy of fallout
diurectics decrease venous congestion and fluid accumulation
Rx - diuretics furosemide - Lasix
vasodilators improve cardiac output and reduce edema
Rx vasoldialtors arteriole dilators; Hydralazine - Venodilators; nitroglycerin transdermal - Mixed; angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors; enalapril-enacard, captopril - capoten
vasodilators adverse hypotension, gi upset, decreased renal function, hyperkalema (potassium)
Positive inotropic drugs increase the force of contraction of the heart
Rx inotropic drugs digoxin - cardoxin; digitalis, digitoxin; dopamine, dobutamine
inotropic drugs adverse arrhythmias and myocardial toxicity
Diuretics adverse excessive fluid, electrolyte losses
Antiarrhythmic suppress abnormal heart rhthym, type of arrhythmia determines drug
ventricular arrhythmias (PVC's Lidocaine
Procainamide premature ventricular contractions
propanolol beta blocker ;slows the heart rate and overrides sympathetic tones
diltiazem, verapamil calcium blockers, vasodilation and slow heart rate
atropine, glycopyrrolate anticholinergics, block vagal effect, increase heart rate
isoproterenol sympathomimetic; mimics effect of the sympathetic nervous sys, similar to epinephrine
epinephrine Technically speaking, epinephrine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine. It causes quickening of the heart beat, strengthens the force of the heart's contraction, opens up the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs and has numerous other effects. The secretion o
beta blockers Beta blockers are a class of drugs that block beta-adrenergic substances such as adrenaline (epinephrine), a key agent in the "sympathetic" portion of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system and activation of heart muscle.
calcium blockers dilitiazem (vasoldilation and slow HR)
anticholinergics atropine, glycopyrrolate (block vagal effect increasing HR)
sympathomimetic isoproterenol (mimics sympathetic NS eg: epinephrine)
Created by: wccvettech