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Respiratory Terms

General Terms and definitions

QuestionAnswer
cyanosis A bluish discoloration of the tisue
phlegm Mucus from the tracheobronchial tree that has not been contaminated by oral secretion
crackles airflow causes movement of excessive secretions or fluid in the airways
tachy Abnormally elevated
subcutaneous Beneath the skin
Tachycardia a condition in which the pulse rate exceeds 100 beats/minute
sputum Mucus from the respiratory tract that has passed through the mouth
brady Abnormally decreased
adventitious lung sounds abnormal lung sounds susperimposed on the basic underlying breath sounds
Bradycardia a condition in which the pulse rate is less than 50 beats/minute
pedal edema swelling of the lower extremities
cough one of the most common symptoms seen in patients with pulmonary disease
orthodeoxia oxygen desaturation on assuming an upright position
orthopnea dyspnea is present only when the patient assumes the reclining position
platypnea shortness of breath in the upright position
hypothermia a body temperature bbelow normal
hematemesis vomiting blood from the gastrointestinal tract
diastolic pressure force in the major arteries remaining after relaxation of the ventricles
systolic pressure peak force exerted in the major arteries during contraction of the left ventricle
hypotension blood pressure less than 95/60 mm Hg
kussmaul's sign under abnormal conditions the JVP may rise during inhalation
brochophony an increase in the intensity and clarity of vocal resonance produced by enhanced transmission of vocal vibrations
bradypnea slow respiratory rate
postural hypotension individuals sit or stand up have an abrupt fall in the blood pressure in hypovolemic patients
pulsus paradoxus a significant decrease in pulse strength during spontaneous inhalation
stridor loud high-pitched sound which sometimes can be heard without a stethoscope
jugular venous distention jugular vein is enlarged and it can be seen more than 3 ot 4 cm above the sternal angle, most common cause is right sided heart failure
fetid sputum that is foul smelling
syncope fainting
hypertension blood pressure is persistently higher than 140/90 mm Hg
purulent sputum that contains pus cells
Pulsus alternans an alternating succession of strong and weak pulses (suggests left sided heart failure)
Diaphoresis sweating
tachypnea abnormally high respiratory rate
hemoptysis coughing up blood or blood-streaked sputum from the lungs
dyspnea shortness of breath as perceived by the patient
febrile Temperature elevation caused by disease is called fever and is said to be febrile
Fever an elevated body temperature due to disease
tripodding a patient sits upright while bracing his or her elbows on a table
sensorium patients orientation to time, place, and person
hyperthermia a body temperature above normal
pulse pressure pulse strength or amplitude
lymphadenopathy enlarged lymph nodes
barrel chest abnormal increase in AP(Anterior posterior) diameter
retractions intermittent sinking inward of the skin overlying the chest wall during inspiration
kussmaul breathing patients with diabetic ketoacidosis often breathe with a deep and rapid pattern
hoovers sign contraction of a flat diaphragm tend to draw in the lateral costal margins instead of expanding them
abdominal paradox recognized by inward movement of the anterior abdominal wall during inspiratory efforts and is seen best with the patient in the supine position
respiratory alternans pattern of breathing in which the patient alternates between having the accessory muscles dominate for a brief period (a few minutes) followed by a period in which the accessory muscles rest and the diaphragm takes over
vocal fremitus refers to the vibrations created by the vocal cords during speech
tactile fremitus vocal vibrations are felt on the chest wall
subcutaneous emphysema air leaks from the lung into subcutaneous tissues, fine air bubbles produce a crackling sound and sensation when palpated
adventitious lung sounds added sounds or vibrations produced by the movement of air through abnormal airways
wheeze continouse type of ALS
heave systolic thrust that is felt and possibly visualized near the lower left sternal border
thrills palpable vibrations
gallop rhythm the patient with heart disease who has an S3 and S4
murmurs when the heart valves are incompetent or stenotic
pulse deficit the apical rate is higher than the peripheral pulse
hepatomegaly enlarged liver
clubbing painless enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes which develop over time
adrenergic drug that stimulates a receptor responding to epinephrine or norepinephrine "Sympathetic"
antiadrenergic drug that blocks a receptor for epinephrine or norepinephrine "parasympathetic"
cholinergic drug that stimulates a receptor for acetylcholine "parasympathetic"
anticholinergic drug that blocks a receptor for acetylcholine receptors specifically at parasympathetic nerve ending sites
muscarinic drug that stimulates acetylcholine receptors specifically at parasympathetic nerve ending sites
Created by: murphyismyname