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SPED326 Ch 6

Chapter 6 vocabulary words

speech disorder difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality or fluency of speech
language disorder difficulty receiving, understanding, or formulating ideas and information
receptive language disorder difficulty receiving or understanding information
expressive language disorder difficulty formulating ideas and information
cleft palate/lip condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip
dialect a language variation that a group of individuals uses and that reflects shared regional, social, or cultural/ethnic factors
speech oral expression of language
language a structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating
phonology sound system, use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words
morphology word forms, the system that governs the structure of words
morpheme the smallest meaningful unit of speech
phonemes individual speech sounds
syntax word order and sentence structure, provides rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences
semantics word and sentence meaning, the meaning of what is expressed
pragmatics social use of language, the use of communication in contexts, the overall organizer for language
social interaction theories emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions
articulation a speaker's production of individual or sequenced sounds
substitutions common in young children, when a child substitutes one sound for another (ex: "tat" for "cat")
omissions when a child leaves a phoneme out of a word (ex: "boo" for "blue")
additions occur when a students place a vowel between two consonants (ex: "tree" into "tahree")
distortions modifications of the production of a phoneme in a word, the listener gets the sense that the sound is being produced but it seems distorted
apraxia a motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech, can be acquired as result of a trauma or in life in isolation
pitch determined by the rate of vibration in the vocal folds, affected by the tension and size of the vocal folds, health of the larynx and the location of the larynx
duration the length of time any speech sound requires
intensity loudness or softness, based on the perception of the listener and determined by the air pressure coming from the lungs through the vocal folds
resonance the perceived quality of someone's voice, determined by the way in which the tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth and nose
hypernasality when air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity, may sound as if they have a cold or are holding their nose when speaking
fluency disorders interruptions in the flow of speaking
fluency rate and rhythm of speaking
specific language impairment not related to any physical or intellectual disability
phonological disorders students may be unable to discriminate differences in speech sounds or sound segments that signify differences in words
morphological difficulties students have problems using the structure of words to get or give information
syntactical errors those involving word order
semantic disorders difficulty with multiple-meaning words and have restricted meanings for words
pragmatic disorders reflected in many ways, inappropriate use of language
organic disorders those caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person
functional disorders those with no identifiable organic or neurological cause
congenital disorder a disorder that occurs at or before birth
acquired disorder a disorder that occurs well after birth
articulation assessments evaluate a student's abilities to produce speech sounds in single words, sentences and conversation
oral motor exam the examination of the appearance, strength, and range motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth, and jaw
bilingual uses two languages equally well
bidialectal uses two variations of a language
System for Augmenting Language (SAL) focuses on augmented input of language, activate the student's communication device in naturally occurring communication interactions at home, school and in the community, encouraging but not requiring the student to use the device
Created by: Katherine09